252key  4/09/07    (For doc. version use http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco252/252key.doc.)

Welcome to the Eco252 Web Page

This is a web page in progress. The page contains links to the course syllabus, course outline with homework assignments, computer problems, and annotated outline. It will contain old exams and problem solutions after they are discussed in class. For future use bookmark this page.

My hard drive is regularly checked for viruses. If you get a virus report, please give me the document number and I will reboot it.

 My standing offer: If you submit a good exam problem to me, you might just find it on the exam. The better thought out it is, the more likely it is to go on the exam with minimal changes. However, since there are 2-4 Statistics exams, the numbers are likely to be changed. A number of students have submitted questions in the past and, I believe, gotten better grades because of it.

My new standing offer: Work to improve the course, if it is used, will be rewarded by adding extra credit points to grades on graded homework. This includes, but is not limited to: 1) The first person to notice an error on any posted document except, maybe, exams; 2) help to improve course graphics and 3) valuable ideas for new documents or problems.


Notices ----     Office hours for current weeks are several pages below.

You should always be sure that you have a copy of the current outline pages to bring to class. You should know how to access Blackboard.

http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/entering_blackboard_for_the_first_time.doc. You can enter this website through Blackboard.

In addition to the prerequisites you are expected to be able to express yourself in writing. All e-mails to the instructor should be in grammatically correct but not terribly formal English with the spelling checked! Note the following rules!

1.  Verbs HAS to agree with their subjects.

2.  Prepositions are not words to end sentences with.

3.  And don't start a sentence with a conjunction.

4.  It is wrong to ever split an infinitive.

5.  Avoid clichés like the plague. (They're old hat.)

6.  Be more or less specific.

7.  Parenthetical remarks (however relevant) are (usually) unnecessary.

8.  Also too, never, ever use repetitive redundancies.

9.  No sentence fragments.

10. Don't use no double negatives.

11. Proofread carefully to see if you any words out or mispeld something.

12. Eschew obfuscation.

13. i get very angry if you Don’t capitalize correctly.

14. Pronouns should be put in the correct case, and the passive voice should be avoided by you and I.

15. I were very happy if you would have learned the difference between the subjunctive and the conditional.

16. Be fermiliar with the spelling and pronunciation of words like higharchy.

17. Its very annoying if you don’t know when ‘its’ needs it’s apostrophe.

18. Writing carefully, dangling participles must be avoided.

Do you know the difference between ‘you and I’ and ‘you and me,’ ‘fortuitous’ and ‘fortunate,’ ‘enormousness’ and ‘enormity,’ ‘lay’ and ‘lie,’ ‘reticent’ and ‘reluctant,’ ‘mischievous’ and ‘mischeevious?’  Most students and too many faculty and newspaper editors don’t. ‘mischeevious’ is not a real word, but I have been hearing ‘mischievous’ pronounced that way too often.


From the Tutoring Center:

How to sign up for a tutor

  • Come to 105 Lawrence Center and fill out a request form.  You must be present to be assigned.
  • You may sign up for up to three different courses. Make sure you give us the course name, course number, and your section number.
  • If our tutors are booked, you will be placed on a waiting list.  We will contact you as soon as a space becomes available.
  • Remember, tutors are assigned on a first come, first serve basis. If you anticipate a problem in a given subject, sign up early -- crisis tutoring does not work.
  • The LARC cannot schedule more than one tutoring session per class, per week. Exceptions are reviewed on a case by case basis.
  • If you have a learning disability or require individualized tutoring, let us know right away. We will try to accommodate your needs as much as possible.

For more tutoring information see my correspondence with LARC.


April Notices

April 9 – The exam has been put to bed. Especially in the multiple choice questions, you need to know the meaning of things like the following: Lilliefors test; Pooled-variance t test; Paired-sample t test; Wilcoxon rank sum test; Wilcoxon signed ranks test; the test for comparison of means for samples with unequal variances; the Chi-square tests. 

April 6 - The take-home part of the third exam is now available and due with the exam on Monday April 16.

April 5 – Solutions to the first and second exam are available in OLD EXAMS.

April 4 – All problem solutions to the end of the term are posted in PROBLEM SOLUTIONS. Official exam schedule is at http://www.wcupa.edu/registrar/exam.html.

April 3 – Notice that I have no office hours on Thursday, April 5. If you want to see me after 5pm that day, send an e-mail. Apologies to the person to whom I apologized for missing my office hours on Tuesday, March 27 – I didn’t have office hours on March 27. I do owe an apology for anyone who tried to see me on the 29th, when I had to take a sick half day.  

References copied from below.

OUTLINE and Lecture Summary  

OUTLINE for use by instructor in class.


Terms not explained elsewhere.




SYLLABUS SUPPLEMENT EXCERPTS also see SYLLABUS SUPPLEMENT CONTENTS. This is most of the contents of Supplementary Materials & Tables for ECO 251 & 252, which is available from Dynamic Student Services, 20 Linden St. I strongly recommend that you buy these tables rather than copying these from the website, since the bound form is more convenient.

ACADEMIC DISHONESTY STATEMENT – See syllabus for current version.

Homework Assignments  

Grading Rubric

Minitab information appears under Minitab Options at the end of this document.

   Macros from Minitab



March 29 – - Graded Assignment 4 is now available and is due in your last class next week. The Solutions to all problems through all of section F are now available in PROBLEM SOLUTIONS. APSCUF scholarship information is available at http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/APSCUF%20poster%202007.doc.

March 28 – Office hours and Final Exam times are posted below.

March 23 - The Solutions to all problems through the first part of section F are now available in PROBLEM SOLUTIONS.

March 21 – 1) Here is the Solution to Graded Assignment 3. 2) There is an error in Computer Assignment 2. The first line should read as follows: ‘Use File and the restart Minitab button. C1 should be labeled mpg, C2 is car and C3 is driver. Label C4 as fits1.’ You can find the corrected version at 252cprb. 3) I have no official office hours on Thursday, but ECO 252 students can probably find me after 5pm in my office until I finish the answer sheet for the exam.

March 20 – Here is the last question on Friday’s exam. If you can answer similar questions on your first computer problem, you should be able to do these questions well.

     10. Computer question.

                a. Turn in your first computer output. Only do b, c and d if you did. (3)

                b. A researcher believes that bank CEOs are paid more than utility CEOs. A random sample of eight salaries (in thousands) is collected for each industry. What were the     null and alternative hypotheses tested? At the 95% confidence level could the researcher state that bank CEOs are paid more than utility CEOs? Why? How would the results     be affected if we insist on a 99% confidence level? (2)

                c. What is the difference between the two hypothesis tests that were done with the salary data? (1)

                d. (Lee) A manufacturer is afraid that the company is producing slow egg timers.  A sample of 12 timers is chosen and the time in seconds that was needed for the timers to run               out was recorded. What hypotheses were tested? Can the manufacturer conclude that the timers are slow if a 95% confidence level is used? Why?  How would the results be       affected if we insist on a 99% confidence level? (2)                                                                                               

March 19 – Several lines on the take-home have been rewritten for clarification.

                a. Test to see if the Reps received significantly higher ratings when wearing suits assuming that the samples come from the Normal distribution. (3)

                b. Test to see if the Reps received significantly higher ratings when wearing suits without assuming a Normal distribution. (3)

                c. So, given the source of the data, which of the two is the correct method to use? Why? (1) [24]

March 8 – So why didn’t someone say something? It should be pretty obvious that when I said “Do problems 7 and 8 using the following data,” that the data I gave was for problems 6 and 7, which are the ones that you should do.

March 7 – The take-home part of the exam is now available and due with the exam on Friday March 23. The Solutions to all problems through sections E are now available in PROBLEM SOLUTIONS. The solution to the first exam is available in OLD EXAMS.

  March 2 - Graded Assignment 3 is now available and is due in your last class next week. We will meet in Room 17 this Monday.



Feb 20 – I have finished putting together the First Exam. Its structure is very similar to last year’s exam. The first page is Normal distribution problems. As usual you will have to find a critical value of z, which you can use to create a confidence interval on a later question. Section II is longer than last year’s. You have to compute a sample variance and use it in hypothesis tests. Section III is shorter than last years and has quite a few problems on proportions. Don’t forget to check office hours on the site before coming over.

Feb 19 - Solution to Graded Assignment 2 is available.

Feb 19 – Fatal mistake in take-home. The sum of x squared on the first page of the take-home should read 442387.8608. The two was left out! It has been corrected.

Feb 16 – It would be a good idea to make a copy of your graded assignment 2 since it is unlikely to be graded by the time the exam is given. You can hand the assignment in until 7pm.. The take-home part of the exam is now available.

Feb 15 - The Solutions to all problems in sections B and C are now available in PROBLEM SOLUTIONS.

Feb 13 – Solution to Graded Assignment 1 is available.

Feb 9 - Graded Assignment 2 is now available and is due in your last class next week. Watch this space for corrections and report any difficulties to me.

Feb 8 – I was an hour late for my office hours today. I will be available until at least 8pm. Graded Assignment 1 has been corrected.

Feb 5 – If you are unsure of your direction you may want to hear about a local employer.

What Monica Mercurio from Moody's Economy.com

When:  Tuesday Feb 6th 4:30-5:30

Where: Anderson 213

Monica Mercurio will be speaking about some job openings at Economy.com.  She has told me that they hire all majors, so feel free to encourage any interested students to attend.

Feb 1 – The Solutions to the confidence interval problems assigned are now available in PROBLEM SOLUTIONS. Graded Assignment 1 is now available and is due in your last class next week. Watch this space for corrections and report any difficulties to me.



Jan 29 – The documents to be handed out on Friday are listed in 252onesCover1.

Jan 24 – The document 252onea now has the properties of estimators added to A2.

Jan 22 - This page can now be entered through blackboard.

Jan 19 – A corrected version of 251distrex3 has been posted. The two corrections on the 4th and 6th pages of the document are double underlined. The last page now prints correctly.

Jan 18 – The recommended calculator was Hewlett Packard HP10B.

Jan 17 – The documents handed out today are enumerated in 252oneaCover and 252syllCover.


Office Hours:  (Call 610-436-2134 if you're not sure! But you are always better off e-mailing rbove@wcupa.edu) . I am often in during late afternoons and evenings outside of these hours.)










Monday Mar 26

Office Hours Noon – 2pm


Tuesday Mar 27

No Office hours


Wednesday Mar 28

Office Hours Noon – 2pm


Thursday Mar 29

Office Hours 2 – 3pm


Friday Mar 30

Office Hours Noon – 2pm





Monday April 2

Office Hours Noon – 2pm


Tuesday April 3

Office hours 3:30 – 5pm


Wednesday April 4

Office Hours Noon – 2pm


Thursday April 5

No Office Hours


Friday April 6

Office Hours Noon – 2pm





Monday April 9

Office Hours Noon – 2pm


Tuesday April 10

Office hours 3:30 – 5pm


Wednesday April 11

Office Hours 1:30 – 2:45pm


Thursday April 12

Office Hours 3:30 – 5pm


Friday April 13

Office Hours Noon – 2pm

Third Exam





Monday April 16

Office Hours Noon – 2pm


Tuesday April 17

Office Hours 5 – 6pm


Wednesday April 18

Office Hours Noon – 2pm


Thursday April 19

Office Hours 3:30 – 5pm


Friday April 20

Office Hours Noon – 2pm





Monday April 23

Office Hours Noon – 2pm


Tuesday April 24

Office Hours 3 – 5pm


Wednesday April 25

Office Hours Noon – 2pm


Thursday April 26

Office Hours 4:30 – 5:30pm


Friday April 27

Office Hours Noon – 2pm





Monday April 30

Office Hours Noon – 2pm


Tuesday May 1

Office Hours 3:30 – 5pm


Wednesday May 2

Office Hours Noon – 2pm


Thursday May 3

Office Hours 4:30 – 6pm


Friday May 4

Office Hours 4:30 – 6pm



Monday May 7

10:30 – 12:30


Office Hours Noon – 2pm

3:30 – 5PM




Tuesday May 8

Office Hours 3:30 – 5pm


Wednesday May 9

Office Hours 3:30 – 5pm


Thursday May 10

10:30 – 12:30


Office Hours by Appointment


Friday May 11

Office Hours by Appointment



Continued on next page



252syll    For homework assignments, see below.



252hwk contains a course outline and homework assignments.

Partial solution to 2000 second graded assignment.

252cprb is the first 3 computer problems. Bring a copy of this document to the computer room or get one off the website as soon as you arrive the computer sessions. 4th Computer problem will appear later.

Graded Assignments and Solutions will be accessible below.

Graded Assignment 1

Solution to Graded Assignment 1

Graded Assignment 2

Solution to Graded Assignment 2

Graded Assignment 3

Solution to Graded Assignment 3

Graded Assignment 4

Solution to Graded Assignment 4

OUTLINE – Lecture notes.

                Lecture notes for use in class - OUTLINE

Terms not explained elsewhere.



These will be made available by request.




Does chi-square homework


Does simple regression homework

Grading Rubric gives you an idea of what I expect.





Minitab Options

The simplest way to get a copy of Minitab for your own computer is to go to MINITAB Release 14 Demo (Download a free, fully functional, 30-day demo version of MINITAB Release 14. You can also download an electronic version of the introductory guide to MINITAB 14, Meet MINITAB.) To rent Minitab go to http://www.minitab.com/education/semesterrental/default.aspx . If you are interested in purchase and rental options for faculty and students, check out http://www.minitab.com/products/pricing/ACPRIORD.aspx.


The following three articles on the Minitab site seemed valuable.

Analysis of Variance Using Minitab

Individual Distribution Identification

The Minitab Data Window


Behrenson Text CD-ROMs  - 8th and 9th edition





Chapter Sections on Berenson Student CD-ROM – 10th edition   


12.5 Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Tests



5.5 Using the Poisson Distribution to Approximate the Binomial Distribution



6.1 Using the Standardized Normal Table



6.5 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial and Poisson Distributions



7.3 Sampling from Finite Populations



8.7 Estimation and Sample size for Finite Populations



9.8 The Power of a Test




Continued on next page.


ADDITIONAL RESOURCES: Dr. Daniel Mohan has kindly provided a list of websites related to statistics. In particular a copy of Minitab can be rented from the Minitab website.  Note: A new window will be popped up to display the linked pages. You will want to close this window when you are done looking at the selected site.     

SPSS Home Page                     http://www.spss.com/
Minitab Home Page                   http://www.minitab.com/
Texas Instruments Calculators   http://www.ti.com/calc/
SAS Home Page                       http://sas.com/
Frontline Systems                      http://frontsys.com/
LINDO Systems                       http://www.lindo.com/     

Stata Corporation                      http://www.stata.com/

Continued on next page.


URL list for this document.

Because some people have had trouble using the links in this document, they are listed here.

252hwkadd                              http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco252/252hwkadd.doc

ttable1                                      http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco252/ttable1.doc

252syll                                     http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco252/252syll.doc

252hwk                                    http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco252/252hwk.doc

Partial solution                                   http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco252/252solngr2-01.doc

252cprb                                   http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco252/252cprb.doc


OUTLINE                                          http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco252/252outline.htm

Go here for outline links.


PROBLEM SOLUTIONS         http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco252/252solnkey.htm

Go here for problem links.


OLD EXAMS                                  http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco252/252examkey.htm

Go here for exam links.


SYLLABUS SUPPLEMENT EXCERPTS                                         


Go here for syllabus supplement links.


CURRICULUM VITAE          http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/bovecv.doc


Miscellaneous Data Links

Doing a Regression.



http://www.nam.org/s_nam/sec.asp?CID=5&DID=3  Manufacturing share in state economies



http://www.nemw.org/data.htm  Per capita income by state.


http://www.nemw.org/data.htm  State personal income per capita.


http://www.bea.doc.gov/bea/regional/data.htm  Personal income per capita by state.


http://www.census.gov/statab/www/  Many state statistics, including persons with bachelor’s degrees.


http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/datazone_index  Income inequality, median income, unemployment rates.


http://www.census.gov/statab/www/minihs.html Mini Historical Statistics




I have found the sites below recently.