Note: In many of the sample questions, I have provided only the framework, and you will need to
fill in the blanks with correct content. However, the framework will give you an idea of how to
write the answers. Always look to the point values of each question to estimate how many pieces
of information you might need.
Using the steps we learned to create an experiment, design an experiment to test the effect of
threat on patriotism (10 points)
I would begin with the theory _______ causes people to ______ (step 1). The independent
variable is ____, the dependent is _____ (step 2). I would operationalize threat as the ______
and patriotism as _______. Therefore, my hypothesis is ______ (step 3). I would randomly
assign people to two groups. The experimental condition would reflect ____, and the control
condition would reflect______. I would manipulate these two conditions and measure______
What are the two key steps to be able to make causal conclusions? (5 points)
[Start with an introductory statement] To make causal conclusions, two steps should be taken.
[step 1:]One must first use random assignment to ensure everyone has an equal change of being
assigned to the experimental or control conditions. If everyone has an equal chance, then any
differences between those two conditions is due to the independent variable, rather than subject
characteristics. [step 2]Once the independent variable has been manipulated in these two
conditions, then by using random assignment, we have narrowed down the cause of dependent
variable to 1. [concluding statement] As such , we can conclude that the variable we manipulated
was the only cause of the dependent variable.
A friend of yours has just been stood up on a date. She is feeling quite depressed. Describe her
pattern of attributions (6 points).
[what pattern will she exhibit:] According to the depressive attributional style, my friend will
make internal stable and global attributions for this negative experience. [define the pattern,
using examples] She will reason to herself that she was stood up because she is inherently
unattractive (internal attribution), that she will always be ugly (stable) and that her ugliness will
affect her at home, school work, in every situation of her life (global).
What evidence is there that the fundamental attribution error may be learned? (6 points)
[Start with an introductory statement] Although some argue that the FAE may be biological,
there is additional evidence that we may learn to use this error. First, there is evidence showing
that children do not make the error [state the evidence], suggesting that over time we learn to
become more intolerant [state the implication of the finding]. Second, there are studies that show
different cultures do not make the FAE to the same extent as our own. In particular, collectivist
cultures are less likely to make the FAE than individualist cultures. Third, one study has shown
that if as self-awareness increases, , our tendency to make the FAE decreases, suggesting that if
we learn to become self-aware, we may become more tolerant. [concluding statement] Together,
these studies shown that we can learn to make the fundamental attribution error, as well as learn
not to make it.
-make sure your sentences are organize
-make sure each sentence is 1 thought.
-make sure each sentence flows into the next, logically.
-Point, proof, comment is always a good rule: introduce your point, then your evidence, then conclude.