-universal instinct for aggression?
-"it's adaptive" = justification?
"Murderers whose violence could not be attributed to abuse/neglect has 14% less active brain waves" (p. 380)
3. Genetic influences
-are there friendly pitt bulls?
4. Biochemical influences (alcohol)
-those who THINK they're drinking alcohol exhibit the same tendencies as those who drink alcohol.
1.Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis (Classic)
"frustration always leads to aggression/aggression only caused by frustration"
Classic Evidence for:
e.g., Hoveland & Sears, 1940: - r ( cotton prices, lynching)
e.g., Doob & Sears:
Procedure: "Imagine you've been waiting for a bus for 1/2 hour, and it passes you by even though it was empty"
Results: most common response was verbal aggression against bus driver
a. Justified Frustration e.g., Pastore, 1952
Procedure: "Imagine you've been waiting for a bus for 1/2 hour and it passes you by. It had a "garage" sign on it, indicating it needs servicing.
b. Causal Attributions (Mitigating Information): if aggression can be attributed to an external source,retaliatory aggression will decrease.
e.g. Schacter & Singer, 1962
Procedure: Ss told they would be testing a drug
Revised Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis:
Frustration leads to anger; aggressive cues allow aggression to occur
2. Social Learning Theory: learn to be aggressive by watching our role models
a. Bandura, Ross & Ross' "THE BOBO DOLL" exp.
b. Learning aggression is wrong:
e.g., Hoffman, 1960: + r(punishment, aggression)
Where we learn aggression:
2. Sports Aggression
realistic=aggression that is not part of the game but occurs
ritualized= violent behavior considered socially acceptable
stylized= apparent aggression seen as acting or spoof
Is stylized aggression capable of teaching aggression?
3. Sexual Aggression/Pornography
Social Psychology 254