Social Facilitation



1. Mere Presence







2. Evaluation Apprehension

Testing the explanations (Cottrell):



Procedure:

Ss performed a task alone

with others

blindfolded (mere presence)



Results: others > alone, blindfolded



So, people concerned with evaluation vs. mere presence




Social Loafing



Explanations 1.Deindividuation



i. Group size



ii. Anonymity




iii. Distraction




Group Polarization



-Risky shift or polarization?





Original tests: (Stoner, 1961)

Procedure: Participants read 12 choice dilemmas, choosing between a risky option & cautious option

Choose individually, then debate with group



"Should a student apply for grad school at a less prestigious school, where he/she will be accepted"

"Should a student apply for grad school at a prestigious school where he/she has less of a chance of being accepted"





Results: Risky shift



Later tests: the Prejudiced are more so, the tolerant are more so!


GroupThink



1. Illusion of Invulnerability





2. Collective Rationalization





3. Unquestioned Belief in Morality





4. Disparage Opponents





5. Conformity pressure





6. Self-censorship





7. Illusion of unanimity





8. Mindguards






Why do groups have such a nasty effect? Social Comparison theory





1. Drive to evaluate self





2. Physical/Unambiguous vs.

Social/ambiguous reality



Test:




























3. Compare with similar others

Test:

































Types of social comparisons:

Upward vs. Downward







Motivation for comparing with others



1. Abilities











2. Self-esteem









3. Group membership






























4.Schemas- schemas affect which social comparisons we make

e.g., Miller, 1984



Procedure:

so, women compare self to women; men to men

so, women dont necessarily compare to women & vice versa

to compare themselves
























Environmental Social Psychology

Interpersonal density





Personal Space



Person-Environment Fit

STRUCTURES MUST: WHY:
1.permit moderate level of socialization too much = no control; too little=isolation
2. Maintain privacy allows people to control interactions
3. Not too much indefensible territory security
4. Encourage feelings of ownership, control liking of surroundings, decreases vandalism
5. Low-moderate outside density high density=increased crowds, less control, environmental stressors