1. Mere Presence
2. Evaluation Apprehension
Testing the explanations (Cottrell):
Ss performed a task alone
blindfolded (mere presence)
Results: others > alone, blindfolded
So, people concerned with evaluation vs. mere presence
i. Group size
-Risky shift or polarization?
Original tests: (Stoner, 1961)
Procedure: Participants read 12 choice dilemmas, choosing between a risky option & cautious option
Choose individually, then debate with group
"Should a student apply for grad school at a less prestigious school, where he/she will be accepted"
"Should a student apply for grad school at a prestigious school where he/she has less of a chance of being accepted"
Results: Risky shift
Later tests: the Prejudiced are more so, the tolerant are more so!
1. Illusion of Invulnerability
2. Collective Rationalization
3. Unquestioned Belief in Morality
4. Disparage Opponents
5. Conformity pressure
7. Illusion of unanimity
Why do groups have such a nasty effect? Social Comparison theory
1. Drive to evaluate self
2. Physical/Unambiguous vs.
Types of social comparisons:
Upward vs. Downward
Motivation for comparing with others
3. Group membership
e.g., Miller, 1984
so, women compare self to women; men to men
so, women dont necessarily compare to women & vice versa
to compare themselves
|1.permit moderate level of socialization||too much = no control; too little=isolation|
|2. Maintain privacy||allows people to control interactions|
|3. Not too much indefensible territory||security|
|4. Encourage feelings of ownership, control||liking of surroundings, decreases vandalism|
|5. Low-moderate outside density||high density=increased crowds, less control, environmental stressors|