1. Communicator characteristics depend on:
a. credibility (expertise, trustworthiness)
eg. SLEEPER EFFECT: persuasion enhanced by credibility immediately, but it doesn't last!
i.e., time x credibility interaction
persuasive ability decreases (increases) over time for a highly credible communicator (for a low credible communicator)
a. Attitude discrepancy: should our persuasive messages differ from the attitude of our audience?
b. 1 sided vs. 2 sided
eg., Leventhal & Watts compared rational vs. emotional messages for smokers:
|Rational message:||Emotional message:|
|statistics on the hazards of smoking||young man getting lung cancer operation|
|DV: "would you have lung x-rays done"?||DV: "would you have lung x-rays done"?|
Results: E > R
e.g., Flora & Maibach, 1990 examined reason/emotion in terms of both attitudes & behavior using PSAs:
|woman whose sister has Aids discusses how they cope||Surgeon Gen. Testifies to congress that condoms|
Results: E > R but only on attitude! What about behavior?
Can emotional messages effect behavior(al intentions)?
WHICH IS IT??
a. Message complexity
4. To whom
b. Elaboration-likelihood model (see ohs)
(Central vs. Peripheral routes to persuasion)
Specific Advertising techniques:
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
Limits to persuasion: If you don't want to be a "marketer's dream":
a. Be forewarned!
(If you want to prevent persuasion, forewarn people you're going to persuade them)
Why? Reactance : unpleasant feelings when freedom is limited
b. Focus vs. Distraction: which enhances persuasion?
c. Inoculation -allows you to combat peer pressure
-premeasured subjects on their support on an issue (e.g, abortion)
-days later, Ss' opinions attacked, then their attitudes measured
Social Psychology 361