1. Communicator characteristics depend on:

a. credibility (expertise, trustworthiness)

eg. SLEEPER EFFECT: persuasion enhanced by credibility immediately, but it doesn't last!

i.e., time x credibility interaction

persuasive ability decreases (increases) over time for a highly credible communicator (for a low credible communicator)

b. attraction

2. What is said?

a. Attitude discrepancy: should our persuasive messages differ from the attitude of our audience?

b. 1 sided vs. 2 sided

c. Reason vs. Emotion: which convinces us more?

eg., Leventhal & Watts compared rational vs. emotional messages for smokers:

Rational message: Emotional message:
statistics on the hazards of smoking young man getting lung cancer operation
DV: "would you have lung x-rays done"? DV: "would you have lung x-rays done"?

Results: E > R

e.g., Flora & Maibach, 1990 examined reason/emotion in terms of both attitudes & behavior using PSAs:

woman whose sister has Aids discusses how they cope Surgeon Gen. Testifies to congress that condoms
prevent Aids


Results: E > R but only on attitude! What about behavior?

Can emotional messages effect behavior(al intentions)?


3. How (Medium): where should we put our messages to get most persuasion?

a. Message complexity

4. To whom

a. Self-Monitors

b. Elaboration-likelihood model (see ohs)

(Central vs. Peripheral routes to persuasion)

Specific Advertising techniques:

Maslow's Hierarchy of needs

Limits to persuasion: If you don't want to be a "marketer's dream":

a. Be forewarned!

(If you want to prevent persuasion, forewarn people you're going to persuade them)

Why? Reactance : unpleasant feelings when freedom is limited

b. Focus vs. Distraction: which enhances persuasion?

c. Inoculation -allows you to combat peer pressure

-premeasured subjects on their support on an issue (e.g, abortion)

-days later, Ss' opinions attacked, then their attitudes measured

Social Psychology 361