Intergroup Relations and Prejudice/Discrimination



Subtle racism/sexism: symbolic racism/sexism: an assimilation of egalitarian values with prejudice beliefs

eg., Tougas' Neo-Sexism scale

Evidence for symbolic racism

Dovidio et al., in Blanchard & Crosby, 1989:













Gaertner & McGlaughlin, 1983



































Results of Symbolic Racism



























































Explanations for prejudice/discrimination

-Authoritarianism-prejudice as a personality trait





-Scapegoat theory-prejudice as frustration





Cognitive theories

1. -Categorization (oh)



outgroup homogeneity: "they're all alike"

ingroup heterogeneity: "we're individuals"

minimal group paradigms: the ease at which social categorization occurs!





2. - illusory correlation: rare events associated with rare people



e.g., Hamilton & Gifford,1976

Procedure: Ss told about group A,B by highlighting certain members

desirable="John, a member of group A, visited a sick friend"

undesirable="Allen, a member of group B, hit a parked car & didn't leave his name"

GROUP # OF PEOPLE TOTAL
Desirable vs. Undesirable
A 18 8 26
B 9 4 13


DV: how many undesirable events did each group perform?





3. Stereotypes/schemas





4. Attributions: Ultimate Attribution Error





Social Theories





Realistic Conflict Theory: group conflict occurs due to competition for scarce resources

4 stages:

1. Spontaneous Interpersonal Friendship Choices=any behaviour due to intergroup vs. interpersonal conflict



2. Group Formation=cabin A & cabin B performing group tasks



3. Intergroup competition=conflict



4. Intergroup cooperation=reduction of conflict







2. Contact Hypothesis: group conflict due to not enough enought contact between groups

short term results: prejudice by minorities decreases, but prejudice by majorites increase

:self esteem remains same

long term results: r ( desegregation, finishing school, wider range of jobs, living in integrated neighbourhoods)



Dominant group persepctive theories + individualism=no change





Minority-group perspective theories+ collectivism=changes to society







2. Relative Deprivation Theory









Social Psychology 254