1. If we were to find that the correlation between height and anxiety was negative, we would predict that

a. taller people would tend to be more anxious

b. shorter people would tend to be more anxious

c. shorter people would tend to be less anxious

d. height and anxiety are unrelated

2. To test the hypothesis, "Anxiety hurts performance," anxiety would be the ________________ variable and performance would be the ________________ variable.

a. dependent; independent

b. independent; dependent

c. confounding; dependent

d. independent; confounding

3. To investigate the effects of alcohol on driving, an experimenter gave people different amounts of alcohol and then placed them in a driving simulator with instructions to press the brake whenever they saw a red light. In this study, the independent variable was _____________ and the dependent variable was _____________.

a. whether they saw the red light; the time taken to press brake

b. the amount of alcohol; whether they saw the red light

c. whether they saw the red light; the amount of alcohol

d. the amount of alcohol; the time taken to press brake



4. Which of the following could not be the best operational definition of intelligence?

a. Score on an IQ test

b. Number of rare words read per minute

c. GPA

d. How anxious you are on several tests

5. If a measure is reliable, it

a. accurately measures what it is supposed to measure

b. is consistent

c. is valid

d. is both consistent and valid

6. If a measure is accurate, it is said to be

a. consistent

b. valid

c. precise

d. reliable



7. Systematic variation in an experiment may be due to

a. the independent variable

b. confounds

c. the independent variable and confounds

d. error

8. Between-groups variance may reflect

a. chance

b. treatment

c. a confound

d. all of these

9. The larger the F ratio

a. the less likely we are to reject the null hypothesis

b. the less likely our results are due to chance

c. the greater the probability of a Type I error

d. the less likely there is a confound

10. Which of the following statements is not true?

a. Reducing the probability of a Type I error increases power.

b. Increasing the effect size increases power.

c. Reducing the probability of a Type II error increases power.

d. Increasing sample size increases power.



11. The best way to eliminate potential confounds that might result from participant assignment is

a. counterbalancing

b. randomization

c. elimination

d. equating



12. A completely randomized design is

a. a between-subjects design

b. a within-subjects design

c. either a between-subjects or a within-subjects design

d. a factorial design

13. In a 2 X 2 design, an interaction effect occurs when

a. both independent variables have an effect

b. there are no main effects

c. the effect of one independent variable depends on the level of the other independent variable

d. there is a main effect of one independent variable but no main effect of the other variable



14. To determine the interaction effect, you calculate

a. row means

b. column means

c. cell means

d. both row and column means



15. The procedure that controls for differential order effects is

a. intrasubject counterbalancing

b. intragroup counterbalancing

c. complete counterbalancing

d. none of these

16. A within-subjects design is more sensitive than a between-subjects design because

a. there are fewer participants

b. there is less error variance

c. there are fewer degrees of freedom

d. all of these



17. "How do you think volunteerism has influenced your professional success?" is an example of a(n) __________

a. open ended question

b. closed ended question

c. Likert-type question

d. semantic differential question



18. Discuss how error variance affects the statistical decision process.



19. What is the difference between participant selection and participant assignment? How does each affect either internal or external validity in an experiment?



20. An experimenter was interested in the effects of reward on performance in basketball shooting. Ten male and ten female individuals who had not played basketball before were selected for participation in the study. For the first 10 shots, they earned 5 cents for each basket; for the next 10 shots they earned 1 dollar per basket; for the final 10 shots, they were awarded 5 dollars per basket. Results indicated that females scored more baskets than males, that all participants scored more baskets when given greater rewards, and that males' performance improved to a greater degree than females' as reward level increased.

a. What is (are) the independent variable(s) in this study?

b. What type of experimental design was used in this study?

c. What is the most likely confound present in this study?

d. How would you control for that confound?

e. Graph the results and interpret them in words.





Answer Key

1. > b

Ray6e02 Ch 2 #20 (MC #20) REF: p. 32 TYPE: WWW

2. > b

Ray6e02 Ch 2 #32 (MC #32) REF: p. 35-36 TYPE: WWW

3. > d

Ray6e02 Ch 2 #31 (MC #31) REF: p. 35-36

4. > d

Ray6e03 Ch 3 #4 (MC #4) REF: p. 55-56

5. > b

Ray6e03 Ch 3 #8 (MC #8) REF: p. 60-61

6. > b

Ray6e03 Ch 3 #10 (MC #10) REF: p. 60-61

7. > c

Ray6e06 Ch 6 #10 (MC #10) REF: p. 139-141 TYPE: WWW & SG

8. > d

Ray6e06 Ch 6 #17 (MC #17) REF: p. 140-141

9. > b

Ray6e06 Ch 6 #24 (MC #24) REF: p. 141-142

10. > a

Ray6e06 Ch 6 #28 (MC #28) REF: p. 143-144

11. > b

Ray6e07 Ch 7 #9 (MC #9) REF: p. 162 TYPE: SG

12. > a

Ray6e08 Ch 8 #4 (MC #4) REF: p. 174

13. > c

Ray6e08 Ch 8 #14 (MC #14) REF: p. 181

14. > c

Ray6e08 Ch 8 #23 (MC #23) REF: p. 187

15. > d

Ray6e09 Ch 9 #12 (MC #12) REF: p. 209-210

16. > b

Ray6e09 Ch 9 #4 (MC #4) REF: p. 204

17. > a

Ray6e13 Ch 13 #3 (MC #3) REF: p. 294-295 TYPE: WWW & SG

18. > Answer not provided.

Ray6e06 Ch 6 #48 (ES #2) REF: p. 138-140

19. > Answer not provided.

Ray6e07 Ch 7 #24 (ES #1) REF: p. 161-163

20. > Answer not provided.

Ray6e09 Ch 9 #28 (ES #4) REF: p. 207-10,215,Ch. 8