How is altruism explained?


THEORY LEVEL OF EXPLANATION MUTUAL ALTRUISM INTRINSIC ALTRUISM
evolutionary biological reciprocity kin selection
social norms sociological reciprocity social responsibility
social exchange psychological external rewards distress -> inner rewards










Selfishness & Selflessness



-Subjects observed victims being shocked



-Low/High empathy elicited via instructions

-situation manipulated so that it was HARD/EASY for subjects to leave

















































Learning to be Altruistic





Reinforcement







































Modeling