Surface Science: Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

Chapter 1. Bulk & Surface Structure: Supplemental Material

The interest in graphene is generated mainly by its structure: a single layer thick, so strong, what's a Dirac point? The 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics honors the work of Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene."

Surface structure plays a role in advanced technology. For instance, using the structure of S atoms
on a Ni surface, engineers at American Superconductor have improved the performance of
second generation superconducting wire.

Here is more information on the crystal planes of semiconductors.

3D solid-state crystal models can be found here.

Porous solids can be formed by etching. Learn more about etching to produce porous silicon here.

Learn more about porous silicon at this link from the lab of Mike Sailor at UC San Diego.

Center for Atomic-scale Material Design
    The Lundbeck Foundation's Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design aims at developing electronic structure theory to understand the properties of materials and use the insight to design new functional nanostructures.

The NIST Surface Structure Database is available here.

Questions and Exercises

  1. What is the Hertz-Knudsen equation and what does it describe?
  2. With reference to Miller indices, what is the difference between [111] and (111)?
  3. Calculate the density of surface atoms on the Cr(110) and the Al(221) surfaces.
  4. Define selvage.
  5. What is a high index plane? Compare this to a facetted surface.
  6. Describe the process of Smoluchowski smoothing.
  7. Define the external surface of a porous material as compared to its internal surface.
  8. How does the structure of a surface alloy differ from that of an intermetallic compound?
  9. According to Tasker's Rules, what characteristics lead to an unstable surface in a covalent solid?
  10. What bonding characteristic do fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphite share in common? How does this differentiate them from diamond?
  11. Carbon nanotubes can be either metallic or semiconducting. What structure property correlates with the difference in electronic character?
  12. What differentiates an incommensurate from a commensurate layer?
  13. Which clean surfaces are the most likely to reconstruct?
  14. What is meant by the lifting of a reconstruction by an adsorbate?
  15. In fcc crystals, are all kinked surfaces chiral?
  16. The difference between EF and Evac is material dependent. However, the workfunction of Ni(111) is not the same as Ni(221). Explain.
  17. Why does the lifetime of an image potential state increase with increasing principle quantum number?
  18. What are the two principle reasons why materials properties become size dependent in the nanoscale regime?
  19. Under what circumstances are quantum effects likely to be important?
  20. How does the surface Debye temperature typically compare to the bulk Debye temperature? Explain.
  21. What is phonon dispersion?
  22. Calculate a general formula for monolayer thickness l in angstroms of a metal for the (111) plane and specific values for Cu, Ag, Au, Pd and Pt.

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