logo Instructions for Assignments in
HIS 312 African History Since 1875

Spring 2016
(MWF 9-9:50pm, 214 Main Hall)

What's New?

Apr. 1: Completed individual reading assignments for the section on Egypt.
NOTE: These instructions are located at
http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his312/misc312assign.htm.
Go to the course syllabus

Date Assignment Percent
Fri. Feb. 12 First examination [Click here for details.] 20
Mon. Mar. 14 Hamman Yaji research paper. [details] 20
Mon. Mar. 21 Second examination [details] 20
Wed. Apr. 27 Paper on globalization's impact [details] 5
Finals Week (May 3-6) Third examination [details] (Exact date/time to be announced) 25
All semester Participation in class discussions (including readings on Ghana and independent Egypt [details] 10

 


 

ESSAY EXAMINATIONS: There are three essay examinations worth 15%, 20% and 25% of your final grade respectively. Although none of them are cumulative (i.e. each exam covers one part of the course and the third exam is not a "final exam"), they will assume that you have not forgotten what you learned in earlier parts of the course. Each examination offers a choice between two broad questions whose answers require you to connect concepts and examples from lectures, readings and presentations. You chose one question and write your answer, using a blue or black ink pen that you bring to the examination, in a "blue book" provided by the professor.

For example: "How would you describe the impact of the two world wars on European colonies in Africa?" An answer to this question could include any of these ideas:

To score well on the examination, you not only need to describe a large number of ideas, but you also need to provide an example to show that each idea was actually true, and present your ideas in a logical order. For example, using the above list, the last idea should come before the first idea because it describes the motivation for Africans to work with European colonizers, while the first idea shows that the relationship could benefit Europeans as well. An example that ties both ideas together is that of Leopold Senghor, a Senegalese veteran who became the country's first president and one of the few African leaders who supported France's position (under President De Gaulle) in the Algerian independence war.

Preparation for and attendance at examinations is crucial. The dates of the examinations appear on this page and on the syllabus -- mark them on your calendar as soon as you read this. If you miss one of them, but can produce a valid excuse you will be permitted to make it up at your professor's convenience, but if you can not produce a valid excuse, you will receive a zero (0) for that examination.

Go to the course syllabus

 


 

RESEARCH PAPER ON HAMMAN YAJI: In the second part of the semester, you will read a diary written by a local African leader named Hamman Yaji during the period when Europeans took over his territory. The diary covers a wide variety of topics, and this assignment requires you to look for diary entries on a specific topic, use other sources to determine what they mean, figure out the ways in which the topic was important to Hamman Yaji during this time period, and write a paper that explains what you discovered. Use the following table to determine your assigned topic.

If your WCU ID# ends with Your TOPIC is
0, 1 or 6 What was Hamman Yaji's attitude towards Europeans? Did it change over time? How can you tell?
2 or 3 Who were Hamman Yaji's "employees"? Were they related to him in other ways besides their employment? What kind of work did they do? (In other words, how would you describe Hamman Yaji Inc.?)
4 or 5 Many entries refer to trade; i.e. buying and selling. What kind of goods did Hamman Yaji and his people sell, and where did they sell them? What kind of goods did they purchase, and where did they obtain them? Can you determine their prices? How, or why not?
7, 8 or 9 How did World War I affect Hamman Yaji and his region?

HOW TO GET STARTED

In general, you should do the following: Start by reading chapters 1-4 and 6 in the Vaughan & Kirk-Greene textbook. After you have received your topic, read Hamman Yaji's diary in chapter 5 of the Vaughn & Kirk-Greene textbook (or at www.sukur.info/Mont/HammanYaji%20DIARY.pdf) and look for entries containing words related to your topic. For instance, if your topic was "religion" you would look for words like religion, Islam and mosque as you read, but you should also look for words like imam, malam, Christian, Koran, pray and so on. Keep in mind that the results will not be predictable (for instance, the word religion does not appear in his diary), but as you read more of the diary, you will get more ideas for relevant words. Do not leave this step until the last minute.

Take notes as you go along (date of diary entry and what it says about your topic) and then use the rest of the chapters in the Vaughan & Kirk-Greene textbook, plus the secondary sources listed below to figure out the role that your assigned topic played in Hamman Yaji's life. Write as many drafts of your paper as you need to organize your thoughts and then compose a "final draft" to turn in for credit. Your final draft should show that you have read the diary, found all entries that relate to your topic, completed reading the Vaughan & Kirk-Greene textbook, and found additional information in the secondary sources. It will include your explanation of the importance of your assigned topic to Hamman Yaji as he faced the increasing intrusions of Europeans.

For example, if you are assigned the topic of religion and its importance to Hamman Yaji, you might observe that religion was the most important thing in his life, since on November 6, 1920, he told his son "There are three things for you to look after - the mosque, your dress and your food." You should also observe that religion provided the basis for his political alliance with Hausa authorities, separated him and his people from the pagans on whom he preyed, and assured the qualification of his most trusted employees. (NOTE: This is not a complete list -- there are many more ideas suggested by the diary -- but it is intended to provide an example of the kind of analysis you should do for this assignment.)

IMPROVE YOUR ARGUMENT

Consider what other people working on the same topic said during class discussion during the week before spring break. Then look at your own argument(s) and see if your logic holds up. One technique is to let a few days go by without looking at your draft, then reread it and outline it just like you would with any other assigned reading. After that, reread your outline and see if the items are arranged in a logical order and the connection from one item to the next makes sense.

Another technique is to have someone read it who is not familiar with your topic and see if they can understand what you have written. The people who work in the WCU Writing Center are equipped to do this, as long as you make an appointment far enough in advance. Resist the urge to read a paper by another member of our class who is working on the same topic, and refrain from asking such a person to read your paper because, unless you are very careful, you run the risk of plagiarism which includes, but is not limited to, copying another person's work without providing attribution, or presenting another person's ideas as your own. Otherwise you may discuss this assignment with other members of our class and use any of the sources listed on this page, but you must write your paper in your own words and you must provide references notes for the sources of all data that you use in your paper. If you have any questions about plagiarism, start by reading the course policy prohibiting all forms of Academic Dishonesty, and if you have questions after that, contact your professor before you turn in your work.

CITE YOUR SOURCES

You must provide a reference note for all information used in your paper that came from the diary or any other source except for common knowledge (i.e. "the sun comes up in the morning" or "World War I ended in 1918") or from your own thought processes (i.e. your conclusion) so that your readers can verify its accuracy. You may do this with reference notes -- either footnotes or endnotes but not both -- and you do not need to include a separate bibliography. Number your reference notes in sequence starting with 1 (not "a" or "i" or "I"), and format them correctly.  For example, if your third footnote refers to something that Hamman Yaji wrote in his diary on January 29, 1922, it should look like this:

3. Hamman Yaji diary, January 29th, 1922, in James H. Vaughan & Anthony H. M. Kirk-Greene, The Diary of Hamman Yaji: Chronicle of a West African Muslim Ruler (Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press, 1995), 78.

After the first time that you refer to the diary, each subsequent reference note can use the short format:

[note number]. Hamman Yaji diary, [date], in Vaughan & Kirk-Greene, [page number].

Reference notes for all other sources used by history majors must follow the rules of the Chicago Manual of Style (or its condensed version, edited by Kate L. Turabian, both of which are available in the WCU Library).   For examples of how to refer to the most common types of sources, visit this page. NOTE: If you are not a history major, and would prefer to use another system of source citation, please discuss it with your professor BEFORE you submit your paper for a grade.

The following grading rubric shows exactly what is expected:

GRADING RUBRIC
PERCENT CRITERIA
10 Your final paper contains 1,500 to 2,000 words, it contains no title page (type your name and topic at the top of the first page), your pages are numbered, and your paper is typewritten or laser-printed on standard white paper (8.5x11) with 1-inch margins and a common 14-point font (Courier, Times Roman, Helvetica or Arial are acceptable).
20 Your analysis shows that you read and understood Hamman Yaji's diary.
10 Your paper contains a clear statement about the importance of your topic to Hamman Yaji.
20 Your analysis shows that you consulted, understood and made use of the rest of the Vaughan textbook and additional primary and/or secondary sources.
10 Your paper includes correctly formatted reference notes for all of your data.
10 Your paper is written using complete sentences organized in logical paragraphs (except for data from tables or quoted material).
10 You expanded or explained all abbreviations in your paper, and you have used no ambiguous pronouns. In other words, if you used a pronoun (i.e. he, she, it, they, them, her, etc.), there is no question as to what it refers.
10 You used correct spelling, punctuation and grammar.
-50 Your paper fails to address your assigned topic.
-10 Your paper is less than 1 hour late (i.e. due at the beginning of class, you were late, but you turned in your paper before the end of class).
-100 Your paper is more than one hour late (i.e. don't be late).

 

SECONDARY SOURCES

OTHER SOURCES

Go to the course syllabus


PARTICIPATION IN CLASS DISCUSSION: During the semester, you will have ample opportunity to offer comments and raise questions in class about the assigned readings and the content of the day's classroom presentation. At the end of each class you will receive a 0, 1 or 2 depending on the extent of your contribution that day, and the total will be used to calculate a cumulative class participation grade worth 10% of your final grade. Keep in mind that class discussions are not competitive events to see who speaks the most, but rather an effort to get everyone involved.

DISCUSSION OF GHANA'S INDEPENDENCE: As the first sub-Saharan African country to become independent, Ghana is of particular interest to scholars, and it received a lot of attention at the time. The following articles all appeared in a special "From Gold Coast to Ghana: Freedom Issue" of "Africa Today (Vol. 4, No. 2, March-April 1957).

Go the WCU Library website, locate the list of databases, and then select JStor. Click on the "Browse by Title" tab and then locate the journal Africa Today. Scroll down until you find "1950s" and select that, then click on "1957 (Vol 4)." From the list of issues published that year, choose "No. 2 From Gold Coast to Ghana: Freedom Issue Mar. - Apr., 1957 pp. 1-32."

Reading Assignment Who reads it?
Who produced this source? Everyone
Front Matter (pp. 1-2) Everyone
Donald Harrington, Ghana Independence Day (p. 3) Everyone (read this first)
Kwame Nkrumah, On Freedom's Stage (pp. 4-8) Zach, Dan, Jared, Lex, Kelly
St. Clair Drake, Independence and Crisis (pp. 9-13) Everyone (read this second)
Harold Courlander and Albert Kofi Prempeh, An Ashanti Folktale: The Coming of the Yams (pp. 14-15) Optional
Who's Who in Ghana (pp. 16-17) Everyone
Harold Cooper, Why Ghana? (pp. 18-21) Ellen, Andrew, Henry, Craig, Mike
Mason Sears, What Success Means (pp. 22-23) Optional
Marguerite Cartwright, A Review of Ghana, the Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah by Kwame Nkrumah (pp. 24-25) Optional
Things to Know about Ghana (p.26) Everyone
Map of Ghana (p.27) Everyone
Emory Ross, Christianity and Ghana (pp. 28-30) Marissa, Bill, Alexei, Brian, Sam
African Review, Gold Coast Bibliography (p. 31) Optional
ACOA Notes (p. 32) Optional

The goals of this activity are 1) to understand why the independence of Gold Coast was significant in African history; 2) identify the arguments for "rapid" and "gradual" independence; 3) identify some of the decisions that leaders had to make at independence; and 4) examine how the Ghanian government tried to address the problems of independence.

Your task: The entire reading is only 32 pages long, so you can read the entire thing if choose. At the very least, you MUST read the items assigned to "Everyone" and the specific article assigned to you (and four colleagues). Be prepared to explain the content of your specific article and what answers it offers to the four questions list under "goals" (above). In the same way that you presented the results of your Hamman Yaji research paper, you will present your conclusions as a member of a panel while the rest of the class observes.

Grade: You will receive a grade based on how you contribute to each panel's discussion -- specifically whether your contribution shows evidence of preparation (i.e. did you read the articles, did you come to class with your own questions, what else did you do to get prepare for the discussion). Keep in mind that you do not have to be a member of a panel to contribute to that panel's discussion. In general, you will receive more points for comments that inspire others to contribute than you will for making comments intended to show how much you know. The points you earn will affect your cumulative class participation grade in one of these ways: increase it by an entire letter grade; increase it by one-third of a letter grade (i.e. from B to B+); leave it unchanged; lower it by one-third of a letter grade (i.e. from B to B-).

EGYPT AFTER INDEPENDENCE: [Send your topic preference to Jim Jones]

As the second African country to become independent (after Sudan) and the most populous country to undergo a revolution during the "Arab Spring" of 2011, Egypt is of special interest to scholars in a number of disciplines including history. The following articles, all of which are available from JStor at the WCU Library website, describe key episodes in Egypt's history since independence.

Topic Reading Assignment Who reads it?
Independence Abdel Nasser, The Egyptian Revolution in Foreign Affairs, Vol. 33, No. 2 (Jan., 1955) Sam, Andrew, Jared, Luke, Marissa
Government Joshua Stacher, The Anatomy of Succession in Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 35, No. 116 (June 2008) Ellen, Zach, Brian, Shana
Development Ahmed M. Abou-Zeid, New Towns and Rural Development in Egypt in Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, Vol. 49, No. 3 (1979) Lex, Alexei, Craig, Dan
2011 Revolution Ann M. Lesch, Concentrated Power Breeds Corruption, Repression, and Resistance in Arab Spring in Egypt (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2012) Henry, Mike, Kelly, Bill

Everyone in the class will be assigned to a panel to discuss one of the articles on Egypt during two class days (April 6 & 8). You will be graded based on how you contribute to each panel's discussion -- specifically whether your contribution shows evidence of preparation (i.e. did you read the article, did you come to class with your own questions, what else did you do to get prepare for the discussion). Keep in mind that, just as with the previous week's discussion on independence in Ghana, you do not have to be a member of a panel to contribute to that panel's discussion. In general, you will receive more points for comments that inspire others to contribute than you will for making comments intended to show how much you know.

The points you earn will affect your cumulative class participation grade in one of these ways: increase it by an entire letter grade; increase it by one-third of a letter grade (i.e. from B to B+); leave it unchanged; lower it by one-third of a letter grade (i.e. from B to B-).

 


 

PAPER ON GLOBALIZATION'S IMPACT: As the world becomes more integrated, events in distant countries and decisions by foreign organizations (including corporations) generate effects in countries like Algeria. Using Merzak Allouache's book Bab el Oued, locate an "external influence" (i.e.: an episode in which an event or decision in another country) that affected the lives of one or more characters in the book. Then write a short paper (1-2 pages) that identifies the page(s) where the incident appears, the external (to Algeria) source, and the internal (within Algeria) effect. Unlike the Hamman Yaji paper, this assignment must be printed out and submitted on paper. Grades will be awarded as follows:

GRADING RUBRIC (globalization paper)

PERCENT CRITERIA
30 You identified an external influence and clearly explained what it is.
30 You identified an internal effect and clearly explained what it was and who it affected.
10 Your paper is written using complete sentences organized in logical paragraphs (except for data from tables or quoted material).
10 You expanded or explained all abbreviations in your paper, and you have used no ambiguous pronouns. In other words, if you used a pronoun (i.e. he, she, it, they, them, her, etc.), there is no question as to what it refers.
10 You corrected all spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors.
10 Your paper contains 500 to 1,000 words, it contains no title page (type your name and topic at the top of the first page), your pages are numbered, and your paper is typewritten or laser-printed on standard white paper (8.5x11) with 1-inch margins and a common 14-point font (Courier, Times Roman, Helvetica or Arial are acceptable).
-50 Your paper fails to address the assigned topic.
-10 Your assignment is less than 1 hour late.
-100 Your assignment is 1 or more hours late.

Go to the course syllabus

 


View a list of all of Jim Jones' course syllabi.