African History Since 1875

AFRICAN HISTORY TIMELINE: 19th century Egypt and East Africa

Copyright 1998 by Jim Jones
All rights reserved

.......DATE............. ...............................EVENT............................. ..............
July 24, 1798 General Napoleon, invaded Egypt and captured Cairo.
August 1, 1798 Admiral Lord Nelson, destroyed French fleet off Alexandria.
October 1799 General Napoleon, returned to France from Egypt.
1805-1849 Khedive Mehemet Ali, Albanian cavalry officer ruled Egypt.
1820s Khedive Mehemet Ali, invaded the Upper Nile Valley.
1821 Khedive Mehemet Ali, imported improved cotton varieties to Egypt.
1822-1832 Khedive Mehemet Ali, fought against Ottoman Empire.
1834 British establish steamship service to India via Suez.
1839-1841 Khedive Mehemet Ali, fought against Ottoman Empire.
1840s German firms began operating.
1849-1854 Khedive Abbas, grandson of Mehemet Ali, ruled Egypt.
early 1850s Khedive Abbas, improved relations between Egypt and Ottoman Empire.
1854-1863 Khedive Said, son of Mehemet Ali, ruled Egypt after Abbas' assasination.
1858 Khedive Said, committed Egyptian government to buy 45% of Suez Canal.
April 1859 Work began on the Suez Canal.
1860-1865 U. S. Civil war creates demand for Egyptian cotton.
1860s Arab traders first reached Buganda.
1863-1869 Ferdinand de Lessups, French businessman, organized the Suez Canal construction.
1863-1879 Khedive Ismail, ruled Egypt.
1867 king of Buganda converted (at least nominally) to Islam.
November 17, 1869 Suez Canal opened.
1873 Sultan of Zanzibar Bargash, agreed to end the slave trade in his domain.
November 1875 Khedive Ismail, Egyptian government sold 176,000 Suez Canal shares to the British government.
1875-1876 Khedive Ismail, Egypt invaded Ethiopia without much success.
1876 H. M. Stanley, visited Buganda.
April 4, 1876 Stephen Cave, British financial inspector of Egyptian finances.
1876 Nile River flood failed--food shortage in Egypt
May 2, 1876 principle of dual control by France and Britain over Egyptian finances established
1877 Nile River flood failed--food shortage in Egypt
1877 Sir William Mackinnon, proposed that British assume administration of Zanzibari domain in the name of the Sultan
1877 Sultan of Zanzibar Bargash, communicated with Germans and refused British protectorate
1877 the first Anglican Church Missionary Society representatives arrived in Buganda
August 15, 1878 England and France gain cabinet seats and control over Egyptian finances
February 18, 1879 first Egyptian army mutiny
April 1879 Khedive Ismail, replaced Europeans with Egyptians in his cabinet
June 1879 Khedive Ismail was overthrown by the Egyptian army and replaced by Tewfik
1879 Catholic "White Fathers" arrived in Buganda
1879-1896 Khedive Tewfik, ruled Egypt
late 1880s civil war in Buganda
July 17, 1880 "Law of Liquidation" reorganized Egyptian finances to pay of external debt of about 100 million
February 1, 1881 Pasha Arabi, a nationalist leader, entered Egyptian cabinet when Khedive Ismail appointed Mahmoud Pasha Sami, an Egyptian nationalist, as prime minister.
September 9, 1881 Pasha Arabi, led the Egyptian army in a mutiny against the Khedive.
1881 France invaded Tunisia, North Africa
January 8, 1882 France and England signed a treaty--the "Joint Anglo-French note", but European diplomatic support for the agreement increased nationalist opposition to Khedive Tewfik.
February 25, 1882 Khedive Tewfik, was forced to appoint nationalists as prime minister and war minister
April 12, 1882 monarchist military conspiracy exposed and the members arrested, France and Britain send small naval squadrons to Egyptian coast
May 20, 1882 France and Britain sent small naval squadrons to Egyptian coast
May 25, 1882 British and French ultimatum forced the nationalist government to resign
June 11, 1882 Egyptians rioted and killed about 50 Europeans in Alexandria on Sunday
July 11, 1882 British bombarded Alexandria
August 1882 British military intervention began with Tewfik's consent and the British captured Suez Canal.
September 13, 1882 British defeated the Egyptian army at Tel-el-Kebir
September 15, 1882 British occupied Cairo
November 9, 1882 British abolished dual control with France
1883-1885 France occupied Madagascar (East Africa)
November 5, 1883 Mahdi, Egyptian army led by the British General Hicks was defeated at El Obeid (Sudan)
1884 Karl Peters, German explorer collected treaties in Lake Victoria region (East Africa)
1884 Kabaka Mutesa, died and replaced by Mwanga (East Africa)
January 6, 1884 General Charles Gordon, went to Khartoum to evacuate the Egyptian garrison
August 1884 A British army left Wadi Haifa to lift the siege of Khartoum
November 15, 1884 Berlin Conference opened
1885 Kabaka Mwanga, ordered the death of Anglican missionary James Hanninton and executed 30 Catholic converts (East Africa)
1885 Mahdist revolt in Sudan prevented British withdrawal from Egypt
January 26, 1885 General Charles Gordon, killed at Khartoum
February 1885 Karl Peters, returned to Berlin (East Africa)
February 1885 Opponents of imperialism began to openly challenge the prime minister in the British Parliament
February 26, 1885 The Berlin Conference ended.
March 3, 1885 Germany annexed territory in Tanganyika (East Africa)
June 21, 1885 General Kitchener, British reconquered Nile Valley from Mahdi
November 1885 Germany Britain and France create boundary commission to divide sultan's domain
1886 Joseph Chamberlain, Conservative politician ends opposition to imperialism after visiting Egypt
October 1886 France and Britain settled East African land claims (East Africa)
May 1887 Britain and Ottoman sign treaty for British withdrawal from Egypt but Sultan backs away
1888 James Hutton, prominent Manchester merchant served on first IBEAC board of directors
1888 Sir William Mackinnon became the first director of the Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEAC)
October 29, 1888 The Suez Canal Convention was signed by Turkey, Russia and various European powers. This international agrement provided for the Suez Canal to remain open to all nations in both peace and war.
1890 Karl Peters, German explorer collected treaties around Lake Victoria (East Africa)
1890 France recognized British Protectorate over Zanzibar (East Africa)
1890 IBEAC nearly bankrupt from failed plantation schemes,
1890 Frederick Lord Lugard, arrived in Buganda to extend IBEAC influence (East Africa)
1890 Britain recognized French claims in Madagascar (East Africa)
1890 Anglo-German agreement recognized German Tanganyika (East Africa)
March 18, 1890 Bismarck dismissed by Wilhelm II as German prime minister
July 1, 1890 Anglo-German Colonial Agreement (aka "The Heligoland Treaty") recognized British claim in East Africa (East Africa)
December 1890 Sir William Mackinnon, asked British government to help IBEAC construct railway to Buganda (East Africa)
July 1891 British parliament refused to support Buganda railway scheme (East Africa)
1894 British declared a protectorate over Buganda (East Africa)
1898 Mahdi, death of Mahdi ended revolt in the Sudan
1902 J. A. Hobson, published non-Marxist critique of imperialism
1904 France and Britain sign the Anglo-French Entente