African History to 1875 (Fall 1997)
p184 The first European ship to land on Goree was Dutch, in 1617. In 1677, French ships under Admiral d'Estrees captured it, and in the 18th century, the French fortified it. p184 The British occupied Goree Island several times during wars, in 1758-1763, 1779-1783, and 1800-1816. p184 In 1854, the French founded a new town on the mainland opposite Goree, and it began to decline in importance.
p155 The rise of the middle class in Europe occurred in two stages. (JJ: The first occurred during the European Renaissance.) The second was triggered by the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century. p155 The middle class was not united or homogeneous. At the lower end of the new middle class were small shopkeepers who found their livelihood at the bottom of the expanding capitalist economy. At the other end were large capitalists who owned companies. Although there were enormous differences in wealth and prestige between the different members of the middle class, they all shared an interest in a new concept, the "expansion of the economy." p158 By the 1850s, half of the new members of the English middle class were small retailers, the fastest growing segment, because as the economy expanded, there were more kinds of products available for retail. In addition, as production increased, shipments became larger and the need arose more often to "break bulk" and tranship goods. Something for you to consider: Is an increase in the number of small retailers a sign of economic strength? One way to think about this is to ask, "What is the smallest number of cigarettes that you can buy?" We can buy a case, carton, or pack of cigarettes, but anyone who tried to operate a business by selling individual cigarettes would have trouble making a profit. Nevertheless, people in some economies do sell single cigarettes, spoonfuls of sugar, individual teabags and so on. p167 The members of the new European middle class shared several assumptions. 1) Personal security and prosperity were the highest goals. 2) The sum of everyone's individual success led to the success of the society as a whole. 3) Competition between humans stimulated them to do their "best"--to provide their best human effort. 4) An open, fluid economy, unfettered by natural or government restrictions, offered the best possible environment in which to m foster individual achievement. 5) Since the goal of security made members of the new middle class inclined to avoid risk, radical change occurred only after economic crisis forced action to cut costs. p168 The new middle class had some specific ideas about the role of the government in the economy, all related to the conditions of commercial competition. Th overnment should reduce foreign competition with tariffs, but stay out of domestic competition. The overnment should also help to reduce the cost of competition by providing transportation and communication infrastructure, might possibly regulate standards to prevent unfair competition.
The Spanish landed at St. Augustine on 1565/09/08, under the direction of Pedro Menedez de Aviles. From 1672 to 1756, the Spanish constructed the massive stone fort that still stands in St. Augustine. In 1762, Spain traded St. Augustine to the English in order to regain Havana, captured by the English during the Seven Years War. During the American Revolution, England used St. Augustine as a base against the Americans in Georgia and South Carolina. In 1784, when Spain regained control over St. Augustine from the English, they encouraged American settlers to come to Florida.