African History to 1875 (Fall 1997)

Miscellaneous Notes for Anna Kinglsey Paper

Copyright 1997 by Jim Jones
All rights reserved

Source: Jean Martin, editor, Lexique de la colonisation fran‡aise (Paris: Dalloz, 1988).
p184 The first European ship to land on Goree was Dutch, in 1617. 
     In 1677, French ships under Admiral d'Estrees captured it,
     in the 18th century, the French fortified it.

p184 The British occupied Goree Island several times during wars,
     in 1758-1763, 1779-1783, and 1800-1816.

p184 In 1854, the French founded a new town on the mainland
     opposite Goree, and it began to decline in importance.

Source: Peter N. Stearns, European Society in Upheaval: Social History Since 1800 (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1972).
p155 The rise of the middle class in Europe occurred in two

     (JJ: The first occurred during the European Renaissance.) 
     second was triggered by the Industrial Revolution in the
     18th century.  

p155 The middle class was not united or homogeneous.  At the
     end of the new middle class were small shopkeepers who found
     their livelihood at the bottom of the expanding capitalist
     economy.  At the other end were large capitalists who owned
     companies.  Although there were enormous differences in
     and prestige between the different members of the middle
     class, they all shared an interest in a new concept, the
     "expansion of the economy."

p158 By the 1850s, half of the new members of the English middle
     class were small retailers, the fastest growing segment,
     because as the economy expanded, there were more kinds of
     products available for retail.  In addition, as production
     increased, shipments became larger and the need arose more
     often to "break bulk" and tranship goods.

Something for you to consider: Is an increase in the number of
small retailers a sign of economic strength?  One way to think
about this is to ask, "What is the smallest number of cigarettes
that you can buy?"  We can buy a case, carton, or pack of
cigarettes, but anyone who tried to operate a business by selling
individual cigarettes would have trouble making a profit. 
Nevertheless, people in some economies do sell single cigarettes,
spoonfuls of sugar, individual teabags and so on.

p167 The members of the new European middle class shared several
     assumptions.  1) Personal security and prosperity were the
     highest goals.  2) The sum of everyone's individual success
     led to the success of the society as a whole.  3)
     between humans stimulated them to do their "best"--to
     their best human effort.  4) An open, fluid economy,
     unfettered by natural or government restrictions, offered
     best possible environment in which to m foster individual
     achievement.  5) Since the goal of security made members of
     the new middle class inclined to avoid risk, radical change
     occurred only after economic crisis forced action to cut

p168 The new middle class had some specific ideas about the role
     the government in the economy, all related to the conditions
     of commercial competition.  Th overnment should reduce
     competition with tariffs, but stay out of domestic
     competition.  The overnment should also help to reduce the
     cost of competition by providing transportation and
     communication infrastructure, might possibly regulate
     standards to prevent unfair competition.

Source: "Castilo de San Marcos," brochure (National Park Service, 1987).
The Spanish landed at St. Augustine on 1565/09/08, under the
direction of Pedro Menedez de Aviles.

From 1672 to 1756, the Spanish constructed the massive stone fort
that still stands in St. Augustine.

In 1762, Spain traded St. Augustine to the English in order to
regain Havana, captured by the English during the Seven Years

During the American Revolution, England used St. Augustine as a
base against the Americans in Georgia and South Carolina.  

In 1784, when Spain regained control over St. Augustine from the
English, they encouraged American settlers to come to Florida.