African History to 1875 Fall 1997
p18 Interracial marriage between European males and females of color was common in Spanish America, because of the acute shortage of European women. p18 Saint Augustine, Florida, was founded in 1565. p56 The restoration of the Stuart kings in England, following Cromwell's Puritan Republic of 1648-1659, resulted in a number of land grants in the Americas to loyal Stuart supporters. Sir John Colleton, a successful Barbados sugar planter, led a coalition of proprietors who tried to make the Carolina grant into a successful colony by attracting skilled people from the other colonies. p57 Charles' Town was founded in the Carolina territory in 1670/03. It was populated mostly by English colonists and transfers from Barbados. The latter brought the practice of slavery along with them. pp72-73 In the early years, it was possible for people of color to obtain their freedom and some influence in the southern colonies. In colonial Virginia, Anthony Johnson arrived as a slave in 1621. He married a woman named Mary and they obtained their freedom in the 1630s. In the 1640s, they established a plantation of 250 acres on Virginia's Eastern Shore, and as late as 1677, his grandson founded an independent farm at Angola, in Maryland. p73 By the last quarter of the 17th century, the colonies started to pass laws prohibiting property ownership by free people of color. By 1706, people of color could no longer own land in Virginia. p74 Unlike laws in the Spanish Empire, US race laws portrayed race in terms of absolutes--you were either "white" or "colored." Mulattoes were treated the same as newly-arrived Africans. Under Spanish law, mulattoes who boasted lighter skin color held higher prestige than "blacks." p74 Before 1674, the supply of slaves to the Carolinas and Virginia was inadequate, and planters were usually forced to go to the main ports of the Caribbean--Havana in particular-- to obtain salves. But after the founding of the Royal African Company in 1672, the supply of slaves in the Americas increased, and ships began to make direct voyages from the West African coast to southeastern American ports like Charleston. p148 The American Revolution was led by dissident rich men, mostly non-aristocrats of the upper middle class. p155 New grounds for divorce in Massachusetts in 1784. The wife of John Backus, a silversmith, received a divorce because he beat her, despite his defense that he knew no other practice because he had seen his father beat his mother. p156 The American Revolution did not lead to the overthrow of the wealthy elite. All it did was make them independent of a higher level of government. p157 After the revolution, every colony had to come up with its own constitution because they royal charters were no longer valid. From 1783-1790, there were constitutional debates in every colony. In general, they weakened the office of governor, and define human rights in terms of protection of conscience, person and property. To protect conscience, the freedoms of speech, press and religion were guaranteed. p159 The Articles of the Confederation created an extremely loose form of government that provided no power to tax the states. It was offered for ratification in 1777/11, but the last state, Maryland, did not ratify it until 1781. p159 In general, Americans were in favor of strong central government only when they felt threatened by invasion (from the British). p160 Another big issue was the ownership of the Northwest Territories, which Virginia claimed under the terms of its royal charter, and other states coveted. "Land-locked" states like Delaware, New Jersey and Maryland, argued Private land speculators offered bribes to the landless states to support federal ownership of the territories between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. After 1781, all states accepted the principle of federal ownership, and ratified the Articles of the Confederation. p192 1793/02: France declared war against England. The United States declared its neutrality. p194 1793/06: England began to use its control of the seas to close all French ports to all neutral shipping. p194 1793/10: England seized hundreds of US ships in the West Indies. p194 1794/05: John Jay negotiated a treaty in London that was so favorable to Britain that it provoked serious political opposition in the USA. The Federalists, led by Hamilton, supported the treaty, while the Republicans, led by Jefferson, opposed it. p196 The Jay Treaty of 1795/06/14 frightened the Spanish who held New Orleans and the lower Mississippi valley. In 1795, they suddenly opened negotiations with the US and offered to unblock the Mississippi Valley for US commerce. The Treaty of San Lorenzo, also known as Pinckney's Treaty, of 1795/10/27, made it official. p200 France was outraged at Jay's treaty. They dismissed the US envoy in 1795 and openly tried to influence the results of the 1796 election. That helped the pro-British Federalist party to elect its candidate, John Adams. In 1797, French privateers captured more than 300 American ships, and then the French humiliated negotiators sent to obtain competition. The details became known as the "XYZ Affair" and enraged American popular opinion. Federalists took control off Congress in the 1798 elections and made plans to expand the American army and navy. p200 President Adams understood the need for an enlarged navy to prevent the French from interfering with American commerce, but viewed the calls for an enlarged army as an attempt by extremist Federalists to create a "police state." p202 In the summer of 1798, George Washington offered to lead an enlarged army if he could have Alexander Hamilton, the Federalist leader, as his second in command. Adams could not refuse, but he arranged for the Department of the Navy to remain separate from the army, and placed it in the hands of a Republican, Benjamin Stoddert, in 1798/05. p205 France and the US reopened negotiations in 1799/11, following the entry of `Napoleon into the French government. This led to the Convention of Mortefontaine, which voided the 1788 American-French treaty that the US feared would force them to back France against Britain in the Napoleonic Wars. p206 President Adams lost reelection in 1800 after the Federalist Party split over its position on relations with Britain. It took 36 ballots of the electoral college to select Thomas Jefferson as president and Aaron Burr as vice president. p207 The most remarkable thing about the Republican victory in the election of 1800 was that power passed peacefully to the opposition party without riots or a military coup. p210 The British account of a conversation in B: Is your master at home? H: I have no master. B: Don't you live here? H: I STAY here. B: And who are you then? H: Why, I am Mr. ___'s help. I'd have you know, man, that I am no sarvant (sic); none but negers (sic) are servants." p211 The 1810 US census showed that there were 7,240,000 people in the country, up almost two million since 1800. 20% of them were people of color, most of whom lived in the southern states. The US had not yet had a large number of immigrants, so most of the increase was due to childbirth. p212 A number of new states entered the union after 1789. Kentucky (1792), Tennessee (1796), Indiana (1800), Ohio (1803), Louisiana (1805), Michigan (1805), Illinois (1809), and Missouri (1812). p212 Tecumseh and his brother, Tenskwatawa (known as the Prophet) led the last Creek resistance in 1812-1814. p213 The 1810 census showed that 84% of the US population was agricultural. The South focused on export crops like rice, cotton and tobacco, while the North favored cattle and cereals. There were no real innovations in agriculture around this period except for the first agricultural fair, with prizes for the best examples, held in Massachusetts in 1809. p213 The US merchant marine greatly expanded its operations in the period 1793-1807. p213 France and England both began to seize American ships in 1805. In response, the US government under Jefferson passed the Embargo Act of 1807, which forbade American ships from trading with either England or France. p213 In 1810, the US population was only 7% urbanized. The cities were mainly transshipment points for international trade, and not manufacturing centers. p214-215 The US fought a war with the Barbary pirates from 1801- 1805. p216 US investors preferred to invest in commerce rather than industrialization, because internal transportation was poor. That made it hard to sell goods manufactured to distant locations, and easy to earn profits by marking up the cost of relatively expensive transportation. p218 In 1801/05, officials in the USA learned that Spain had secretly transferred title over the Louisiana area to France. In the summer of 1801, France sent a fleet to restore order in Haiti, and the USA worried that it might continue on to New Orleans and close the Mississippi Valley. p218 In 1802/10, Spanish officials closed New Orleans to US trade. p219 By the end of 1802, the French force in Haiti had lost 30,000 men due to disease, and Napoleon gave up his ideas of a French empire in the Americas. He offered to sell the Louisiana Purchase to the USA for $15 million in 1803/04. During the negotiations, the French foreign minister Talleyrand was invasive when the American negotiators, Livingston and Monroe, asked if the purchase included Florida. p219 Lewis and Clark left St. Louis on 1804/05 to explore the Louisiana Purchase. They reached the Pacific Ocean in 1805/11 and returned with reports by 1806/09. p220 Fearing that the former Spanish and French subjects of the new region would revolt against the USA, Jefferson asked for and received authorization from Congress to create a transitional government appointed from Washington for the new territory. p225 After he left office as Jefferson's vice president, Aaron Burr traveled around the new territory in the summer of 1806 and encouraged expectations that he would form a new independent country. He was captured on his way to Florida in 1807/02, and tried for treason but acquitted. p226 According to the 1878 Constitution, slaves counted for 3/5 of a white person for the purposes of sending representatives to the House and for the electoral college, even though they did not vote. The Northern states made this concession to the southern states in hopes of getting a stronger federal government. But by 1806/12, Jefferson wanted to end the US involvement in the slave trade. p226 On 1807/03, a law passed that ended all importation of slaves beginning on 1808/01/01, but left it up to each state to dispose of slaves seized under the new law. In effect, this left the way open for each state to do what it anted with respect to the slave trade. p227 The war in Europe between France and England resumed in 1803. p227 On 1805/10/21, the English Admiral Nelson defeated a combined Spanish and French fleet at Trafalgar, winning control of the seas for the English. But on 1805/12/05, Napoleon's army won the decisive victory of Austerlitz, and control over the ground in Europe. p227 The British resumed the seizure of American and other neutral vessels "headed to France" in 1805/07. In 1806, the English "Orders in Council" created a "paper blockade" off the European coast that required all neutral ships to put into English harbors for customs inspection before continuing on to the continent. p227 In 1806/11, the French retaliated with the Berlin Decree that created the Continental System, and the Milan Decree of 1807/12 that made all ships coming from British ports liable to seizure. In other words, after the Milan Decree, all neutral ships were subject to British seizure if they did not submit to a search, and to French seizure if they did. p228 In 1807/06/21, an incident off the coast of Virginia between HMS Leopard, which tried to stop and search the USS Chesapeake, ended with the death of three US sailors and a public outcry against England. Resisting calls for a declaration of war against England, Jefferson tried a peaceful response by declaring a trade embargo against both England and France on 1807/12/22. However, that provoked massive resistance from American shippers between 1808-1809, ... p230 ... and led to the repeal of the Embargo Act on 1809/03/01. p231 After further seizures and provocations, on 1812/06/01, President Madison declared war against England. p234 After negotiations had already begun for the end of the war, Andrew Jackson led an army of irregulars in the defense of New Orleans on 1815/01/08, and won a great victory over the English. p241 After the end o the War of 1812, the main US goal in the southeast was to obtain control over Spanish Florida. In 1812, the US annexed western Florida between the Mississippi and Perdido Rivers (modern Mississippi and Alabama coast). In 1816, Andrew Jackson pursued a Seminole war party into eastern Florida, and in 1818/04-05, Jackson led an army that occupied eastern Florida. Despite condemnation from Congress, he received public support as the "Hero of New Orleans" and the occupation remained in place. p241 In 1818/11, the US delivered an ultimatum to Spain to cede the Florida territory to the US in order to prevent further violence. Since Spain was already involved with a number of colonial revolutions in Latin America, it yielded. p241 On 1819/02/22, Spain and the USA signed the Adams-Otis Treaty ceding Spanish Florida to the USA. In exchange, the US government agreed to pay of $5 million in claims owed by Spain to US citizens. p244 During the period from 1815s to 1830s, there were a number of last-ditch efforts by native Americans to resist European occupation of the land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. p249 In 1807, Robert Fulton successfully operated the steamship Clermont for 150 miles upstream along the Hudson River. p249 In 1811-1812, the steamship New Orleans successfully operated from Pittsburgh to New Orleans, and in 1815, the steamship Enterprise sailed from New Orleans to Pittsburgh. By 1820, there were 69 steamboats with a total displacement of 13,890 tons (average of 201 tons per ship) operating in the Mississippi River valley.