secondary work

T. J. Alldridge, I.S.O., F.R.G.S., A Transformed Colony: Sierra Leone, as it was, and as it is. Its progress, peoples, native customs and undeveloped wealth
(Westport, Connecticut: Negro Universities Press, 1970; originally published in London: Seeley & Co., Ltd., 1910), 368pp & map.

Notes © 2002 by Jim Jones , Ph.D.

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Note to the reader
I. Introductory (p17)
II. Freetown (p20)
III. Freetown--A General Look Around (p29)
IV. Freetown as seen in its Streets (p35)
V. The Population of Freetown (p43)
VI. The Food Supply of Freetown (p47)
VII. The Popular Trading Roads (p55)
VIII. The Freetown Municipal Council (p62)
IX. The Revolution in Trade (p73)
X. The Princess Christian Mission hospital (p86)
XI. The Mountains and the Mountain Villages (p92)
XII. The Mountain Railway (p105)
XIII. The Sierra Leone Government Railway (p110)
XIV. From Kissy to Bo (p118)
XV. The Halt at Bo (p128)
XVI. The Government School at Bo (p138)
XVII. From Bo to Baiima (p147)

XVIII. Still in the Oil-Belt (p157)
XIX. Along the Road to Pendembu (p168)
XX. Back to the Coast by Swamp, Bush, and Forest (p183)
XXI. The Old chiefs and the New (p193)
XXII. Byways in Mendiland (p203)
XXIII. The Mendi Marriage Customs (p212)
XXIV. The Bundu Order. The Secret Society for Women (p220)
XXV. The Coast and its Waterways (p237)
XXVI. Sherbro (fish). From Minnow to Tarpon (p249)
XXVII. The Sherbro Churches (p258)
XXVIII. The Making of a Bai Sherbro and of a Sokong of Imperri (p268)
XXIX. Tribal Wars that led to the Forming of the Protectorate (p279)
XXX. The Need of a Protectorate (p290)
XXXI. From Mr. Garrett's Log-book (p296)
XXXII. Mr. Garrett's Log continued: Across the Niger (p312)
XXXIII. Back to Port Lokko (p328)
XXXIV. The Oil-Palm (p334)
XXXV. The Kola Tree (p349)
XXXVI. Conclusion (p357)
Index (p363)

Note to the reader : The following notes were prepared by Jon Sauerwald, a student at West Chester University, using a template and preliminary notes prepared by Professor Jim Jones. Mr. Sauerwald's instructions were as follows:

Here is what I would like you to do. The rest of this file contains the notes that I have already taken on Alldridge's book. Read through the entire file before you start, but when you're ready, I'd like you to read the rest of the book and add to my notes. In general, I am interested in the European impact on Sierra Leone, so it is NOT necessary to take notes on everything in this book. Instead, please take detailed notes on anything having to do with the following topics:

  1. railroads, ships, "hammocks" and any other form of transportation. Take notes on the names of stations, names of railroad workers, price of tickets, schedules, equipment, kinds of freight, reasons why people take the train and people's impressions/opinions about the train. [I took some detailed notes on pages 105-109 to give you an idea of what interests me.]

  2. commerce and trade: names of merchants, prices, goods, locations, etc. Anything that explains how people bought and sold things.

  3. wage labor: Any references to people, either African or European, who worked for pay.

  4. European efforts to improve health care or education. That includes schools, sewers, clinics, water supplies, medicine, doctors, teachers, books, newspapers, etc.

  5. Leaders: any names of European officials or African leaders. Include their names, titles, where they were located, and what they were in charge of.

  6. European military stuff, including the use of Africans as soldiers, location of barracks, types of weapons, naval vessels, etc.

  7. For everything else -- such as an entire page that describes the vegetation in an area -- you can simply give the page number and write that this page consists of a description of the local vegetation. In other words, summarize in a sentence material that has to do with "native customs," vegetation, geography, etc.

I. Introductory (p17)

The Sierra Leone Company founded a colony at Freetown in 1787. In 1807, they transferred control to the government and Sierra Leone became a crown colony. (p17)

Sierra Leone was deadly for Europeans due to the prevalence of malaria. (p18)

In 1871 when the author first came to Sierra Leone, the Scramble had not yet begun. Since then, however, France has acquired a great deal of territory "to such an extent that our Colony and Protectorate are now entirely hemmed in by Guin‚e Fran‡aise, the French Sudan, and the negro Republic of Liberia, and any extension of our Hinterland beyond the Anglo- French boundaries is definitely stopped." (pp18-19)

Caravans that shipped quantities of raw gold, ivory, and cattle usually traveled to Freetown but due to border limitations were redirected to French ports such as Konakri. (p19)

In 1871, Sierra Leone was governed by Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy, who held the title "Governor-in-Chief of the `West Africa Settlements'." Gambia was administered under Sierra Leone while the Gold Coast and Nigeria were under a separate government. In 1886, Lagos became separated from the Gold Coast, and in 1888, the Gambia was severed from Sierra Leone. (p19)

II. Freetown (p20)

Description of coastline. A lighthouse is located on the cape of Sierra Leone. A dangerous reef called Carpenter Rock and a large sandbank is located just offshore. (p20)

Carpenter Rock is the site of two shipwrecked streamers: the Nigretia and the Monrovia. (p20)

". . . with the greatly increased number of European residents in the town, everything in the way of garden or dairy produce finds an immediate sale, as demand largely exceeds the supply." (pp21-22)

Susu canoes are used by natives to transport bags and people. "From one or two of these boats a courteous coloured gentleman or two, speaking excellent English, will board our steamer and open out, not only a very excellent selection of the postcards of local scenes, which we are sure to want, bu will also have been so thoughtful as to have with him the necessary stamps." (p22)

The Blue Peter is a mail and passenger ship that travels between England and Sierra Leone. (p22)

"The landing at Freetown, however, is just as primitive as ever as regards the boats. Those who remember the beautiful clean craft of Madeira and the Canary Islands will probably regard the Freetown boats as a disgrace to the Colony, and I quite agree with them, for frailer and more wretched conveyances we could hardly see anywhere. The only improvement upon the earlier times is, that there is now less confusion, as the boatmen are licensed and the fare is fixed." (p23)

Despite the bad condition of the boats, the landing as made at a wharf. This is a luxury matched only at Bathurst in the Gambia, and otherwise one must disembark via surf boats, becoming wet in the process. (p23)

The town is arranged along the shoreline and on the foothills of mountains, the highest of which is Sugarloaf at 2,496 feet. Just beyond the market where the Susu canoes unlaod, the Imperial battery is located at King Tom's point. On the otherside of the wharf, the Eastern battery is located behind the Eastern Telegraph offices. Both are used as "European rendezvous where we used to meet up for talk and for the chance of getting a breeze from the sea." (p23)

The Tower Hill barracks were located on "an elevation at the back of town" when Alldridge was here the first time. New and larger barracks are located just offshore at Mount Oriel and Kortright Hill. (pp23-24)

Beyond the point where the Eastern Battery is located, there is a produce port and coal depot at Susan's Bay. Beyon that is the Princess Christian Mission Hospital, the Bishop's Court, and Fura Bay College (Fourah Bay). (p24)

The Government operates the main wharf in the port of Freetown. The railroad has a siding that descends a steep curve and runs out onto the wharf. It is used to carry material for railroad maintenance, new railroad construction, and goods shipments. "Everything to do with the railway is of course quite modern. It is distinctly Governmental work, but by no means the only public improvement undertaken by the Government visible." (p24)

Just beyond the wharf, a lot of granite has been quarried for construction. The warehouse and two short jetties that are under construction will greatly improve the ease of landing cargo. The warehouse cost 6,000 lbs. and the jetties cost 16,000 lbs. (p24)

Steamship Communication (p24)

"Extraordinary progress" has been made since the author first sailed to Sierra Leone. It is quite a usual thing nowadays to travel with 100 or more passengers." (pp24-25)

In the past, the voyage from England to Sierra Leone took 18 days but with the improvement of ships, it now takes 10 days. (p27)

III. Freetown--A General Look Around (p29)

Goods are transported from the wharf up to Water Street, which serves as the entrance to town, by manual labor. The author suggests that an "endless platform" would be better because it would replace much human labor with mechanical power and result in less damage to the goods. Next to the wharf, a railroad follows a steep curve in the middle of the street up to the Central railway station. (p29)

Passengers from the ship reach Water Street from the wharf via a stairway. "Under the burning sun this unshaded ascent is a bad beginning for every one who does not use a hammock." (p29)

Water Street is the main strip where all the important buildings are located. This street runs parallel to the harbor. p29 ()

Six days out of the week every person in Sierra Leone is concerned about one thing: trade. Trade occurs all over and with every type of business. "Wherever there is a street corner with a tree and a little shade to sit under, there you may notice clusters of people and someone selling." [Description of various African traders, both men and women, and trade goods] (p30)

The term for money in Sierra Leone is copper. (p30)

"Natives of the tropics have a natural desire for color, and the traveller from the grey north after a time gows to desire it too. The street crowds provide him with a veritable feat of colour." (p30)

Two Photos of Freetown waterside market opposite p30

Umbrella trees once grew all over and around Water Street. These trees provided shade with their thick and long hanging branches of foliage. These trees were destroyed because they were thought to harbor mosquitoes. One tree was left standing by the Cathedral and is known as "The Umbrella Tree." (p31)

Ice is now available cheaply so there is no longer any need to beg for a morsel from a passing steamer captain. It is a great luxury and comfort to the sick. (p31)

In town, the main streets are all surfaced with red laterite and most of the good buildings are built of the same"porous stone." Their roofs are corrugated iron. (p32)

A railroad was built that connected a Government-run quarry to town, which allowed large quantities of stone to be shipped. This resulted in better building material and faster construction. (p32)

The Colonial Secretariat, the Treasury, the Local Auditor's offices, and the Government House are located on George Street. (p32)

With the arrival of the railroad many village post-offices opened that overloaded an already inadequate Post-Office (the headquarters, located in Freetown). (p32)

The Colonial Hospital with British staff and native assistants is also being stretched by population increase. But it is effective. (p33)

The author describes the case of the "paramount chief of Sherbro, one of my oldest friends," who had elephantiasis and whose condition was declining. An operation by Dr. Benner at the hospital cured him in a few months. The author writes that examples like this show the Africans that science (i.e. British medicine> is superior to "fetish." (p33)

The hospital is on the west side of town near the waterside market at "King Jimmy." It is operated by the Government. Neaby, in Oxford Street, the Colonial Government operates the "Colonial Nursing Home for European paying patients" in a corner building that was formerly used as "the old Commission Court." It is operated by a medical officer, British matron and two sisters. (p33)

Two miles away on the eastern side of town in "the Mohammedan Quarter," the smaller Princess Christian Mission Hospital also provides good care. (p34)

"Between these two hospitals are many of the most congested streets, overcrowded with petty trading stores and little houses packed with native families." (p34)

IV. Freetown as seen in its Streets (p35)

Other than its "human interests and the natural beauty of its surroundings," Freetown is not not an atractive town. "The whole town has, however, been carefully planned, and laid out in straight streets, intersected by very broad main thoroughfares. ... There are scracely any interesting architectual details; few picturesque buildings." The author says that the buildings become dilapidated with age, and do not possess deep eaves that might provide shade to passersby. (p35)

The reason for the absence of eaves and verandas "is said to be fear of the burglar ... who durin the rainy season was far too much in evidence." (p35)

Recently, there has been some improvement by the construction of stone buildings (instead of laterite, which generates red dust) and the planting of formal gardens. (p36)

A tour of the town begins on Water Street at the cathedral which is a solid building but without any special charm. It is in a good location near the harbor, and its thick stone walls keep the interior cool. "It has a deep chancel, and many mural tablets to hose who have passed away." (pp36-37)

The cathedral is called St. George's Cathedral and it is the main church in the Sierra Leone diocese. It is very well- attended, has "a large native choir" and "standing where it does immediately overlooking the harbour, at once arrests attention and stamps the whole Colony as a professedly Christian land." (p37)

The Customs House stands opposite the Cathedral. The Colony's revenue has grown rapidly thanks to the the opening of the Hinterland and the extension of the railroad by "feeder roads." Feeder roads provide access to fields that naturally produce crops. These fields are quickly turned into a profit. (p37)

Although there are no export duties on native produce, as exports from Sierra Leone increase, so do imports from "Great Britain, the Continent, and the United States to meet the fresh wants and spending powers of the opened-up districts." The railroad has only been at work for 3 years but is greatly increasing the spending power. "The tonnage has greatly increased, and the steamers are now almost daily entering and departing from the port of Sierra Leone, and the Customs have developed into a giant department." pp37-(38)

The Revenue from the Protectorate (p38)

The railroad into the interior of Sierra Leone would not have been possible without the Protectorate. The Protectorate provided stability between warring tribes through friendly treaties. The treaties divided the Protectorate into workable areas under the British District Commissioners. (p38)

Sir Frederick Cardew governed Sierra Leone at the time of the reconstruction of the colony and is responsible for the establishment of the Protectorate. His support was mixed throughout his tenure, but the author, who served under the Governor for his entire six year erm, "never wavered in my admirationof his statesmanlike qualities and of the way in which he handled the Colony during perhaps the most difficult period of its history" due to the unrest that followed the introduction of the hut tax. (pp38-39)

There was a "native uprising of 1898" in response to the introduction of the "house tax" [aka: hut tax. See also /d/a/books/curtin.int]. (p39)

The house tax was a policy set up by Cardew and it stayed intact after the uprising. The tax is now collected by the chiefs themselves and given to the District Commissioners. In 1905 the tax was œ38,553; in 1906 the tax was œ40,947; in 1907 the tax was œ43,034. (p39)

Generally, the natives accept the tax, although there were attenpts to circumvent it by constructing lean-to shelters called Konkos next to existing houses to shelter additional families in the hope o paying only one house tax. (p39)

The natives are content with the new government. "They no longer fear native raids ... they can and do now devote themselves to the cultivation of their lands with a reasonable hope of being able to reap what they have been sowing, and whenever I went within touch of the railway I could but observe the contentment of the people and the growing prosperity of the country." (p40)

Revenue is "the gauge of the state of a country." The revenue has been on the rise since the European arrival. The revenue in 1887 was œ60,637; the revenue in 1897 was œ106,009; the revenue in 1907 was œ359,104. (p40)

The Law Courts (p40)

The law courts next to the market are the oldest and most inconvenient buildings in the colony. The noise from the crowds which congregate outside can be enough to drown ou the voice of the chief justice. (p50)

The Wilberforce Hall (p41)

The Wilberforce Hall was built in memory of William Wilberforce. He was an advocate for the abolition of slavery. This building contains offices for the Municipal Corporation of Freetown and a reading room where English documents are located. (p41)

East of Wilberforce Hall stand a line of mercantile houses, in front of which runs the railroad. (p41)

"The railway demands so much space, and has already made such important alterations in the whole Colony and Protectorate ... The station is a substantial building of native stone, and absolutely up-to-date. The telegraph throughout the railway system and the telephone to the Government offices are arranged as if in England." The author recalled that there was neither telegraph nor telephone during his first visit to Sierra Leone. "The railway has a very large passenger traffic, and a still larger carrying business in goods and produce." (p41)

This station serves as the last stop on the Mountain Railway. The Mountain Railway transports European officials to town from their bungalows in the mountains high above the town at Wilberforce. The railway that runs from the wharf also connects at this station. (p42)

V. The Population of Freetown (p43)

The population of Freetown can be divided into roughly four classes, each with numerous subdivisions: 1) Sierra Leonean Creoles who make up the bulk of the population, 2) natives from neighboring tribes, 3) the white community, known as "Europeans" but also including Americans and West Indian officials, and 4) "the Imperial West Indian Troops." (p43)

The Creoles are colored people descended from freed slaves. They are British subjects, strongly prejudiced against upcountry natives, and work mostly as traders. There are so many traders that it is a concern that their children will not be able to support themselves. (pp43-44)

The Natives or Aborigines (p45)

Mendis or Kossos: Many members of the Mendi tribe were employed to construct the Sierra Leone Government Railway. A Mendi chief was appointed in Freetown to accommodate the influx of tribe members to the colony. The Mendi Reservation is a building located near Cline town in the Ginger Hall Estate. This building is reserved to quarter navvies from the Mendi tribe. (p45)

The Timinis: These are the people from the area where Freetown now stands. Their present chief, Alimami Momo, lives in the Mohammedan quarter between the Fura Bay and Kissy Roads. He is known for riding around town on a good-looking pony while wearing fine clothes. (p46)

"Many of the native chiefs set a fine example in the matter of politeness and ceremony, which in these days is a welcome contrast to the brusqueness too often noticeable among many persons of lighter color. ... I hope devoutly that as hey come more into touch with our so-called civilised ways, they may not lower their exiting standard of good manners." (p46)

VI. The Food Supply of Freetown (p47)

Goods from "the fertile Bullom shore" are brought by Susu canoes to the waterside market at "King Jimmy." (p47)

Fruits and vegetables are grown in the suburbs of Freetown and in the villages near the railway. They include "salads, tomatoes, cucumbers, country spinach, ... cabbages," ... (p47)

.. although the cabbages are expensive at 6p to one shilling each, and their hearts are not always as solid as Britons expect. (p48)

" ... with the frequent incoming of steamers bringing all kinds of things in their refrigerating chambers in perfect condition, and the accelerated time in which the passage from England is performed nowadays, that before long we shall find that even the growing of the vegetables required for daily consumption ... will, like so many other native industries, gradually dwindle away." (p48)

A European company established an ice business in Freetown. This company also makes aerated water and stores imported perishable foods like meat, butter, and milk. English beef cost 10d. per lb.; English mutton cost 11d. A butcher also set up shop to provide better meat cuts. (p53)

VII. The Popular Trading Roads (p55)

Kissy Road runs between Bishop's Court and Fura Bay College to Kissy Town. It is located in the east end of Freetown. The Kissy Road is lined with store fronts that are known to sell mostly cheap manufactured clothing. (p55)

Descriptions of Clothing Sold-Hats, Vests, Slippers, Different types of Fabrics. (p56)

"With the march of so-called civilisation the paradox is presented of asking the natives on the one hand to grow cotton for the English markets, while on the other hand the English manufacturers are sending out people to use in place of their own country-grown cotton ... " (pp57-58)

Kru-town Road is the west end trade road. This road trades the same kinds of materials as Kissy Road but, "as its name implies, it and its off streets are allotted to the Kru people, who come from the Kru country further down the coast ... " (p58)

The Kru-town Road connects to Ascension Town, Soldier Town, the new Recreation Ground, the Golf Links, Congo Town, Murray Town, Wilberforce, and the bungalows at the Hill Station. (p59)

The Regent Road connects Freetown with the suburban villages. On Saturdays people travel to town via the Regent Road. (p59)

VIII. The Freetown Municipal Council (p62)

Sir Samuel Lewis, Kt., C.M.G. was the first mayor, elected in 1895, of the municipal council that was created in 1893. The council included a mayor who is assisted by fifteen other council members. Twelve of the fifteen were elected positions; the final three were appointed by the governor in the council. (p62)

The Freetown Municipal Council collects money through municipal licenses, market dues, water rates, and house taxes. John Henry Thomas, the mayor in 1907 collected a revenue of œ9,256, 16s., 11d. with expenditures of œ9,082 0s. 11d. The expenditures included kerosene street lamps which costs œ1,350 14s. 9d., the sanitary department costs œ2,339, 7s. 10d., the fire-brigade costs œ119, 17s. 2d. The water supply is carried throughout the city in 143 stand-pipes. The costs of the water works is 1,039, 11s. 8d. (pp62-63)

Freetown is known for pure water. It runs down from the mountains to the "King Jimmy" market. "Once you drink of King Jimmy water, however far you wander from it you must always return to it." (p66)

Water is brought from mountain streams such as the Congo, the George, and the Ederoko. They flow through iron pipes to a service reservoir near the north side of Tower Hill. This reservoir supplies Freetown with all their water needs. "The outlay for this great public work was œ27,948, 2s. 11d., and was taken over by the city council in August 1906. The amount is debited to the corporation at 3 « per cent. The interest on loan, and the sum set aside as a sinking fund, is to be paid annually to the Colonial Government." (p66)

Instead of using the railway that runs from Cline Town Station to Water Street with a stop at Dove Cot people tend to travel by foot. Alldridge notes that the transportation is not needed outside town but in town, between the principle streets. "Covered cars suitable for the tropics, that would connect the different parts of this wide-spread city ... and one of its benefits would be the inducement to build in the suburbs and so relieve the congested streets of the centre." (p67)

Hammocks are most commonly used by Europeans and wealthy blacks. Horses are rarely used because their life expectancy is short in the hot climate of Sierra Leone. The jinrickshaw as Alldridge explains, "[are] a comparatively new importation." They are mostly used by missionaries from the United States and nurses and sisters from Europe. (p68)

The first bank in Sierra Leone was the Bank of British West Africa and was established in 1898. (p70)

"This bank has also afforded great relief to the Treasury of Freetown, to the Customs, to the numerous officials, to the numerous officials both in town and in the Protectorate, to all trading firms, and in the general carrying out of official and mercantile business." (p71)

The bank provided a monetary medium between importers and exporters. (p72)

Alldridge explains that banking and railways are the precursors of civilization. They simplify trade and commerce that would greatly benefit Sierra Leone. (p72)

IX. The Revolution in Trade (p73)

"The whole system of trade, as I [Alldridge] first saw it in Sierra Leone, has undergone a gradual but complete transformation, in fact an entire revolution." (p73)

In the past, trade in Sierra Leone was strictly wholesale from European merchants. Imported goods were sold in large quantities and left the retail to natives of Sierra Leone. Foreigners would import items in exchange for Sierra Leone exports. (p73)

Imported goods were sold on specific days so that no preference is shown. All the merchandise was laid out on a table for the inspection of the dealers. (P73)

The retail of the tobacco trade was dealt by the "tobacco dealers" or "grog sellers." They are a small group of Sierra Leoneans who traded only in tobacco. Tobacco would cost as much as 300 to œ400 Tobacco was in major demand. (pp73-74)

Trade has evolved by importing firms becoming their own middleman and "developed retail business on their own account." Imported goods were sold over-the-counter at the ordinary retail price. (p74)

The distinction between wholesale and retail faded " ... with the delimitation of the Anglo-French boundaries, the caravans from the far interior, with their rich trade ... were diverted from Freetown and found their way up the coast to Konakri and other French ports." (p74)

The cable that was extended to Freetown allowed direct trading with Europe. (p75)

The establishment of the parcel post set the small purchaser independent of the wholesaler. (p75)

The parcel post allows natives to order through catalogues; especially for shoes. (p75)

The French Company, the Sierra Leone Coaling Company, and the Bank of British West Africa is located on Water Street in Freetown. (p76)

Messrs. Pickering & Berthoud is located on Oxford Street. This building is described as " ... a sort of miniature Whiteley's, with plate-glass front windows in which are displayed the latest things in superior importations." (p76)

The Hinterland is acquiring a taste for European goods. (p78)

" ... the Freetown community consumes but produces nothing ... " (p78)

Some Europeans detest missionaries because they believe it is interfering with commercial progress. (p79)

Alldridge points out, "If, however, the European merchant will not trouble himself about the up-country people, somebody else will." (p81)

Syrian traders are moving down the coast and are become competitors with Sierra Leone traders. (p81)

For merchandise that is going for œ2-3, Syrian traders sell it for a few pence. (p81)

The Syrians come to Freetown to make money then return home to "set up a home among their own people." (p82)

X. The Princess Christian Mission hospital (p86)

The Princess Christian Mission hospital, which Alldridge traveled to via hammock, is located near the Bishop's Court on the Episcopal grounds. (p86)

Description of Bishop's Court and surrounding grounds. (p86)

Description of Bishop's Court and surrounding grounds. (p87)

"The Hospital lies back from the Fura Bay road, along which runs the permanent track of the Inland Railway." (p87)

The hospital is staffed by Matron Sister Penson, Matron Sister Everard, Dr. Mayhew the medical officer, two sisters, and five African nurses. (pp86-88)

"The premises include one large free ward for women and children, one small ward for paying patients, and a ward for European missionaries; consulting room, operating room ... and a residence for the European Matron and Sisters." (p88)

Alldridge explains that employees at the hospital worked in racial harmony. "Nowhere have I seen Black and White in such delightful conjunction ... " (p88)

The Princess Christian Mission hospital was established in 1892 by Mrs. Ingham for the purpose of "training African ladies in nursing and in ministering to the spiritual and bodily needs of the sick poor." (p90)

A fire destroyed the Princess Christian Mission hospital on March 17th 1909. Reconstruction of the building took place immediately. (p91)

XI. The Mountains and the Mountain Villages (p92)

The Leicester, Charlotte, Gloster, and Regent are mountains outlying Freetown. They range from three to five « miles from town. The ascent of the first mountain begins at the end of the Regent Road pass the Victoria Gardens. (p92)

The Government Sanatorium a.k.a. "Heddle's Farm" is a bungalow located 600 ft. above the city on the Regent Mountain road. The building is named after its original owner Hon. Charles Heddle who was a prominent European member of the municipal council. (p93)

The town of Leicester is reached in approx. an hour of traveling along the Regent Mountain road. The women of Leicester create a business of doing the laundry work of Freetown. (p96)

Bungalows such as Bethany Cottage, sanatoria for the Anglican, Roman Catholic, and the American United Brethren Missions line the road between Freetown and Leicester. (p96)

"These sanatoria are sued during the dries by the missionaries of the various Churches when run down by the climate and over- work ... " (p97)

Alldridge climbed to the summit of Leicester mountain (1,954 feet above sea level) to find a stone pillar with the inscription: (p97)

L.
1954
C.S.S
1904.

The next village located on the Regent Mountain road is the village of Gloucester. Another road is located right before Gloucester veering left going to the village of Charlotte. (p98)

The last of the suburban mountain villages located on the mountain road is the town of Regent. Communication is kept with Wilberforce through the Mountain Railway. (p99)

Alldridge with the companionship of Rev. R.P. Dougherty, M.A. ascended the Sugar-Loaf Mountain. This mountain is located to the right of the Regent Road. (p100)

Sugar-Loaf Mountain rises 2,496 feet above sea level. (p101)

XII. The Mountain Railway (p105)

After Freetown became too crowded, the Europeans built a "hill-station" on Wilberforce Hill, 800 feet above sea level. Although it was only five miles from Freetown, there was no way to get there except by hammock, so the British built a mountain railway that opened on March 1, 1904. (p105)

The railroad starts at the Water Street terminus and passes along the streets of Freetown in a westerly direction to the first stop at Pademba, next to one of the largest cotton trees in the region, so the station is known as "The Cotton Tree Station." (p105)

A few minutes away is the Campbell Street Station in a densely populated neighborhood. Beyond that, the land is less crowded, and the train passes through the golf course. (p105)

The train climbs the mountain side through dense brush using many curves. The route required some skilled engineering and the "delicately curved iron bridge over the gorge by Kongo Town is particularly noticeable." (pp105-106)

Just before the Lumley Road station, the coastline comes into view. Just beyond the station, the train passes the barracks of the West African Regiment. In West Africa, barracks are always located on hills. (p106)

After only a few more minutes, the train reaches Hill Station, with its beautiful view of the coast. It is hard to believe that this area was once called "the White Man's Grave." (p106)

"Hill Station ... [is] ... as perfect a health resort as is to be found on the coast-line of West Africa ... On one spur of Wilberforce Hill are twenty-one of these bungalows, looking across the village of Lumley to the North Atlantic." (p106)

The European bungalows obtained a good supply of water from a dam located at 1,100 feet above sea level on the northern side of Leicester Peak. (p107)

The bungalows for Europeans are spacious and healthy. Some officers even have their wives with them. The bungalows offer an opportunity to escape the "fetid atmosphere of the valley for the pure air of the mountains, where the nights are refreshingly cool, mosquitoes are rare, netting being hardly needed, and where they can sleep in peace and return the following morning, fit for the day's work." (p107)

The take the train from the Hill Station at 8:30am and reach Freetown at 9am. They return in the afternoon on the 3:30 train from "the `Cotton Tree.'" (p107)

The bungalows are surrounded by roses, lilies, hibiscus, "the variegated crotons," bougainvillea and other flowers. Pineapples flourish there. (p107)

There is a tennis court for recreation, a croquet lawn, and lots of pleasant social activity. (p107)

Nowadays, there is also a road to Freetown. Residents of the Hill Station "can either hammock or walk down." (p107)

The road is lined with silk-cotton trees "with extraordinarily long and high-standing roots ... " (p108)

Canvas tents of the Native West African Regiment is located outside the village off the road that travels through Freetown. (p108)

Lumley road leads into Murray Town where the Murray Town Station is located. (p108)

"In every town passed there is a church or chapel." (p108)

A station located on Wilberforce Hill is used to signal incoming ships. Flags are used to communicate with ships or alert the town of an attack. (p108)

"The little journey by the Mountain Railway occupies only half-an-hour." (p108)

"The stations of the Mountain Railway are -- Water Street; Cotton Tree; Joaque Bridge; Campbell Street; Brook Fields; Wilberforce (for Murray Town); Lumley Road (for Goderich); the Barracks (West African Regiment); and Hill Station (for Leicester, Regent, &c.)." (p109)

There are a half-dozen trains each day. The earliest leaves Water Street and 5:45am and the "last at a corresponding hour in the afternoon, while the down trains start at 6:25 and cease running at 6:30pm." (p109)

"Single fares between the terminii for first, second, and third class passengers are respectively 9d., 6d., and 3d., the return fare being 1s. 3d., 10d., and 5d.; while to intermediate stations tickets are issued at proportionately moderate rates." (p109)

XIII. The Sierra Leone Government Railway (p110)

"The reports of the Travelling Commissioners during their five years' work, and the personal observations of the Governors, Sir James Shaw Hays and Sir Frederic Cardew, in their extended tours throughout the Hinterland, resulting in the creation of the Protectorate, made it abundantly clear to the Government that a railway into the interior was imperative, if the people were to be civilised and the enormous resources of the remoter parts of the territory utilised. In 1896, during Sir Frederic Cardew's administration, a Government railway was therefore begun, and continued from Freetown to Songo Town, a distance of thirty-two miles." (p110)

The first twenty miles of the track runs along the base of the mountain with the slope of the mountain on one side and open land on the other. The Rokel River and The Creek run along the track. (p110)

The last twelve miles of track nearing Songo Town is flat and monotonous. Newton station, the engineering department headquarters, located about half an hour outside Songo is considered the prettiest station on the line. It is isolated and nestled between palm trees with an open view of the mountains. (p110)

The Sierra Leone Government Railway was opened on May 1, 1899. It took some time for natives to realize the advantage and simplicity of transporting goods on railways. (p110)

The cost was more expensive than canoe travel but the product arrived at its destination faster and in better condition. The freight was also protected from the elements. (p111)

Without the oil-belt the railway would have never been profitable. (p111)

The line was built section by section until the town of Bo was reached. Large quantities of oil palms were located eighty-four miles away at the town of Baimma. "the line was therefore continued for eighty-four miles to Baiima in the Mando country." (p111)

The terminus at Baiima opened at 1905. A tramway was built to Pendembu in 1908 which extended the oil-palm industry into the Upper Bambara country. (p111)

The station of the Sierra Leone Government Railway was located on Water Street. (p112)

Alldridge comments on the ease of traveling on trains compared to hammocks. (p113)

"The platform is crowded with the gaily coloured native costumes peculiar to the different tribes." (p113)

A penny is charged to people who want to see their friends off. "A very necessary precaution here, as the friends of the native are so many." (p113)

"The ordinary japanned box is the favourite receptacle, but we observe that the women prefer the oval bonnet-box, locally called "kettle," it is convenient for carrying on the head." (p113)

The Sierra Leone Government Railway leaves the Water Street station passes the Eastern Battery, East Street, crosses the Nichol Brook on an iron bridge before stopping at the Dove Cot Station. The train than follows Furah Bay Road passing the Princess Christian Mission Hospital and Bishop's Court stopping next at Cline Town. (p114)

"Cline Town being a convenient distance from Freetown was formerly one of the principal suburban places at which the leading European merchants had their bungalows ... " (p114)

"The railway has been the medium of introducing scientific and mechanical means of traveling into the country, and this before long, it is reasonable to assume, will be followed by other inventions for the saving of both time and labour, and by the gradual disappearance of those semi-barbaric methods of work ... " (p115)

Local offices are located at Cline Town which includes "engineering work-sheds with up-to-date steam machinery and every requisite for the maintenance of the lines ... Carriages and trucks are built there, and in fact these works are capable of dealing with not only the heavy details of running a railway, but of every minute item in connection with it ... " (p115)

There is also a running, carriage, and general store sheds located in Cline Town. (p115)

Alldridge was around Cline Town offices by the locomotive superintendent Mr. E. G. Barker. (p116)

"Cline Town has the advantage of being near the open water- side and receiving the full benefit of the sea-breezes, with a backing of the mountain range." (p116)

The "Microbe" and "Mosquito" are located outside the station which are mosquito-proof houses. Two European staff members occupy these houses. (p116)

The railway leaves Cline Town running around the base of the mountains in the curve known as the "horse-shoe." It then travels over rocky grass lands and by Granville Brook before stopping at Kissy Station. (p116)

XIV. From Kissy to Bo (p118)

Between the village Kissy and the villages of Wellington and Hastings there is a viaduct 280 feet long and many bridges to help traverse the deep gorges. (p118)

"The gorge used to be one of the most formidable obstacles to the traveler ... I therefore appreciate to its full extent ... the advantages of being able to cross in safety and comfort the enormous boulders and treacherous waters ... as that now traversed by the Orogu Viaduct." This viaduct is 386 feet long and has six spans. (p118)

The town of Hastings is reached by Maroon viaduct. (p119)

Waterloo is located seven miles past Hastings. The market gardens of Waterloo supply Freetown with their supply of vegetables. (p119)

"A number of Sierra Leone people leave the train there [Waterloo]. They are constantly going to and returning from Freetown not only with the produce of their market-gardens, but with wood for fuel ... " (p119)

The Ayo-ville Hotel is an expensive hotel is located near the railway station in Waterloo. " ... not exactly up to the Cecil, the Carlton, or the Ritz, but externally and internally it is sufficiently enticing ... " (p120)

Description of the Ayo-ville Hotel. (p120)

Waterloo is covered with many different types of fruit: cocoa-nuts, oil-palms, bananas, pau-paus, oranges, mangoes, bread-fruit, cassada, and kolas. (p121)

Petty trading takes place all over Waterloo. (p121)

Alldridge travels to the coastal town of York, 10 miles from Waterloo, by hammock. (p121)

Before the railway was put in place, Alldridge crossed the Ribbi river in dug-out canoes with Governor Cardew's first expedition. (p122)

"... the late Sir Francis de Winton, who effected a landing at Mafengbe, whence he constructed a military road, twelve miles long, to the gorge opposite Robari, where there was a large cotton tree known as `The Devil Tree'." The point of crossing the Ribbi was to attack the town of Robari. The natives believed that as long as "the Devil Tree" stood than the town would be protected. A British officer destroyed the tree with a charge of gun-cotton. The town was then taken and occupied by the West India Regiment. (pp122-123)

After Alldridge crossed the Ribbi in a gin-case canoe he stopped at Mabang station. (p123)

Alldridge traveled down the Ribbi to the town of Bradford (named after the first engineer who constructed the railway). (p123)

The American Mission of the United Brethren in Christ is located in the town of Rotifunk. (p123)

"Rotifunk is consecrated in the annals of Missions by the death of several devoted men and women who here were the victims of the terrible massacre that occurred during the native rising in 1898." (p123)

A church has been constructed across from the railway as a Martyrs' Memorial. (p123)

"Rotifunk is on the Bumpe River, now crossed by a short bridge." This river is not navigable until it widens and flows into the Yawri Bay. (p124)

"Beyond Rotifunk the line is cut through a dense growth of trees, showing a long vista apparently closed in by a great mountain ... and in time [we] arrive at the station of Boia, sixty-four miles from Freetown." The country around Boia is full of rice clearings and low vegetation. Alldridge comments on the uninteresting countryside. (p124)

"After a run of eleven miles we reach Moyamba station, which is close by the Yambuta River." (p124)

Moyamba houses the residence of the District Commissioner and "was one of the centres of the West African Frontier Force until the concentration of that force at the fine new barracks at Daru ... " (p125)

Roman Catholic and American missions, schools, and churches as well as a Government Hospital are located in Moyamba. "It is also a recruiting ground for Court Messengers ... " (p125)

Court Messengers are usually Mendi or Timini natives who deal with the District Commissioner's court. They "serve summonses, act as bailiffs and as guards to the treasury, carry messages, and perform many other duties ... " In the rain the Court Messengers wear blue uniforms; when it is dry they wear khaki uniforms. They also are equipped with "double-barrelled guns and buck cartridges." (p125)

"The paramount chief supplies the men, who are taken on as probationers for three months at 7d. a day inclusive. During the `hungry season' (that is, during the last three months of the rains) they receive 2d. a day extra ... " (p125)

When probationers prove themselves they are placed on the permanent strength and the pay is increased to usually a penny a day, but can be up to 3d. " ... but no man can get a shilling a day until he can read and write English." (p125)

The paramount chief receives 1 lb. a year for furnishing exceptional probationers. (p125)

Each District Commissioners has at least one or two probationers trained at the Bo Government School so to teach the others. "After ten years they are entitled to a pension, which works out at something under œ4 a year." (pp125-126)

Little is produced at Moyamba. (p126)

After leaving Moyamba, Alldridge crosses the Bangue river over an iron bridge and continues on past the town of Tungi. Alldridge then passes through the station of Kangahun and continues to the station of Mano. (p126)

At the station of Mano, natives gather on the platform with calabashes to sell mangoes, bananas, ginger-beer (native to Mano), and pillows. (p126)

The railway travels through the town of Tabe before reaching the village of Bo. (p127)

XV. The Halt at Bo (p128)

The train always stops at Bo for a day before continuing on. " ... the train will not start for the present Hinterland terminus at Baiima until seven o'clock next morning." (p128)

" ... This up-country station is an adaptation of the tropical bungalow with deep verandahs ... Built on stone pillars, the lower part is turned to account for offices and storage, the upper is the district traffic manager's residence." (p128)

At 6:30 a.m. two trains leave Bo: one heading toward Freetown and the other toward Baiima. (p129)

"Bo, which is the principal place upon the railway after leaving Freetown, is 136 miles from the capital of the Colony." (p129)

Ten years earlier, Bo was the site of a bloody native uprisings and massacres. (p130)

Bo is full of women traders returning to Freetown. (p130)

Agridi is " ... beaten maize and cus-cus seed wrapped up in leaves ... " Abala is a" ... well-browned block compounded of rice, banana, and palm-oil." Pujeh is a "mixture of pepper and palm-oil forming a thick sauce." All are popular breakfast foods. (p131)

"Storage, here right on the platform is a great advantage to the merchant ... " (p132)

Kerosene tins are used more than any other object to carry oil. "A tin will contain four gallons; two full tins make a good load for a native carrier and are easily packed into his long, palm-leaf hamper." (p132)

Merchants pour the contents of the kerosene tins into larger tubs at the train platform. This is done to prepare for shipment at the Freetown port. (p132)

All the loading and unloading is done by manual labor. " ... but the natives seem to have taken kindly to work of this sort." (p132)

Produce comes to Bo by "feeder roads" on bullock carts. (p132)

" ... `Feeder Roads' so called, I suppose because they `feed' the railway." (p133)

Bo-Mandu Road is the "feeder road" running from the station at Mandu through Dambara ending at Bo. (p133)

Bullock wagons are a type of mass transport. The cost is a penny per mile and the bullock wagon stops at every village to pick up cargo and carry it to a railway station. "This bullock- wagon is used entirely by the country people and the Sierra Leone traders." (p133)

Another feeder road runs into Bo from Tikonko. " ... no produce comes down to the railway from there; evidently it all goes to Mafweh by native carriers, and then by canoe along the Big Bum River to the coast at the Sherbro." (p133)

Water transport is cheaper than by railway. (p133)

A telegraph is installed along the line so that items can be called to be delivered from one station to another. "The telegraph is installed throughout the system at English rates. (p134)

Alldridge measured a hamper to be 6 feet 4 inches long by 9 « inches wide and 7 inches deep. (pp134-135)

Explanation of how Hampers are made. (p135)

A compound is located behind the train station at Bo. The compound originally housed residences and offices of the railway construction staff. It now houses the Colonial Government and their bungalows. (p135)

" ... where the British officials number more than one or two there will the tennis-court be ... " In the middle of the compound is a tennis court. (p136)

A circuit judge and his wife, District Commissioners, the medical officer, the principle of the Bo school, and other officials live in the compound's bungalows (p136)

The Government School at Bo is located in the compound. (p136)

XVI. The Government School at Bo (p138)

The Government School opened on March 1, 1906. (p138)

The boys who attended the school lived in the towns outside the compound. "There are eight boys in each hut, under the charge of a big boy-monitor." Each hut has land that the boys must cultivate and take care of. (p138)

"Only sons or nominees of chiefs are admitted as pupils." (p138)

The education consists of English basics and practical training which includes farming carpentry, bridge building, road making, and land surveying. This education is to "train the sons of chiefs in such a manner as to make them good and useful rulers of the country in the future." (p138)

The ambition of each student is to become a clerk in the government. This is ambition is not shared by the government; they are suppose to obtain an English education while keeping their tribal roots. (p139)

Each pupil brings a kit that consists of a country gown, a white gown, three kerchiefs, one cap, one hammock (optional) , and one mat. (p140)

"Bananas are served out every morning, except the one day on which there is not market in the town." (p140)

Each hut has a large basin for food. The boys sit around and eat food using their hands. " ... such things as knives, forks, and spoons being rigidly, and, as I venture to think, very properly taboo." (p140)

The pupils have a 3 medical huts that is staffed by nurses from each particular tribe. " ... as a boy naturally likes to be nursed by a woman who can speak his own language ... " (p140)

The school hours go from 7 a.m. to 10 a.m. then 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. " ... The native staff of teachers being instructed from two to four." (p140)

Articles from the government notice dealing with rules for the pupils. (p141)

The tuition for schooling, board, and lodging is œ10 per year. (p144)

"The trade [in Bo] is principally in cash, and is of a retail description." (p145)

List of materials in demand at Bo. (p145)

Since Alldridge's return to Bo a bank had been opened. " ... in itself will do much to assist trade and to facilitate the Treasury work of the Government ... " (p145)

XVII. From Bo to Baiima (p147)

Alldridge leaves Bo traveling eighty-four miles to the Hinterland station in Baiima. (p148)

The railway crosses the Sehwa River on its way to Baiima. "The Sehwa is too important a water-way to pass without notice, but its width up here is nothing when compared with its width for its first fifty miles from the sea, where it is known as the Big Bum, and is navigable for trade craft right up to the falls of Mafweh." (p148)

The Sherbro river is located below the Mafweh falls and is considered one of the most important trading waters. People living on Turner's Peninsula refer to this river as Bum-Kittam. (p148)

Before the delimitations of the Anglo-French boundaries cattle "were regularly brought down to the coast ... " The delimitations diverted the cattle route from Sierra Leone to the French port Konakri. (pp148-149)

The railway has developed a new cattle trade bringing cattle to Freetown from distant parts of the Protectorate and beyond. The cattle also arrive at Freetown in better condition. (p149)

On his way to Baiima, Alldridge stopped at the town of Blama. (p149)

Blama is the center of the oil-palm belt. (p150)

" ... I am very glad to see that Blama is flourishing. It is within the chiefdom of Bo; there are no British officials resident there, although the place is visited by the District Commissioner on his patrols." (p151)

" ... Blama is in the midst of an untold wealth of oil-palms, it would all be unworked without overland transport; so it is here we begin to realize somewhat the value of Government feeder- roads." (p152)

Feeder roads are used to connect outlying towns with the nearest railway station. (p152)

Blama's feeder road connects with the town of Boadjibo, twenty-four miles away. (p152)

The opening of the feeder road moved the business center from outside the villages south of the railway station to right next to the station on the north side. This was done by large companies. "One enterprising firm at Blama has introduced two fine mules from Grand Canary, and an American four-wheeled wagon. These ... are giving great satisfaction and travel faster than the bullock-carts ... " (pp152-153)

Serabu is a small railway station in Blama with a growing trade. " ... there are two or three hundred bags of kernels piled up on the platform awaiting the down train ... " (p153)

Rice cultivation takes place outside Blama. (p153)

" ... Bai, a small `flag-station,' at which the train is only stopped by signal at present." (p153)

Kennema is located beyond Bai through the Kennema pass and Kamboi Range. The railway station located here is small. " ... time is transmitted daily from Bo to this [Kennema station] ... " (p153)

The Government compound is located a half a mile from Kennema. The compound contains the District Commissioner's office, the post office, and a prison. There are also residencies for government personnel in the compound. (p153)

XVIII. Still in the Oil-Belt (p157)

Alldridge was a former Traveling Commissioner, and the only white man in the interior (p159)

Alldridge travelled by hammock along the rail line and over new bridge (p160)

"We found Daru station all alive with people arrayed in bright-colored clothing of every description. There was a great deal of trade waiting there, not . . . " (p161)

Train whistle gave people time to get to the station to meet the train. (p161)

Train arrivals and departures were major events. (p162)

Description of a native town, Baiima, as "more or less squalid" (p162)

Sierra Leone traders dominated the town and set up their operations in clearings along the top of the railway cuttings. (p163)

XIX. Along the Road to Pendembu p168

Alldridge traveled to Pendembu by hammock. (p168)

The treacherous road from Baiima to Pendembu, before the railway, was a " ... narrow, single-file track, through numerous swamps as well as up and down many undulations ... ." Along the same road now runs a tramline. "This extension road goes through what we may call a natural botanical garden." (p168)

Some British merchants live in the Hinterlands from November through March to escape the bad season of Europe and help them feel rejuvenated. " ... from November to March, the worst time in Great Britain, is the hottest, driest, and altogether the best time in this Hinterland. These merchants only live in the parts within the influence of the railways or feeder roads. (p169)

From Liverpool, Baiima can be reached in fourteen to fifteen days; the Belgian Congo line departing from South Hampton takes less time. (p169)

Harry Gilbert, Assistant Director of Roads, is creating a bridge that is 213 feet long and crosses the Mauwa river. (p172)

Gilbert hired an entire native staff to build the bridge. (p172)

"I met no sick Europeans, Sierra Leoneans or natives in this up-country [Hinterland]; on the contrary every one seemed in excellent health." (p173)

Alldridge comments on the changing of material wants in Sierra Leone. "Already the people are beginning to discover that such a thing as difference in quality exists" (p173)

Mendi workers are in the process of building the foundation for the new railway station at Pendembu. (p174)

"Pendembu, now the terminus of the `extension tramway,' is still unknown even by name to the majority of people in Freetown and in the Protectorate." (p174)

Before the railway reached Pendembu the town was small with "squalid native huts ... ." (p174)

On Alldridge's next visit, Pendembu had transformed. "The squalid huts with their barbaric war-fences had given place to a town with a fine open quadrangle containing some of the best native houses in the country." (p174)

Kutubu is Pendembu's paramount chief. (p175)

Kutubu has a son at the Government School at Bo. (p175)

Description of Kutubu. (p175)

" ... there is an ever-recurring evidence that a powerful current of civilising influence is continually passing up from Freetown along the railway." (p177)

Alldridge notes that the "far-reaching developments" that could be brought by the railway could be undone by the liquor trade. (p177)

In 1892 a three day meeting was called at Korbangai [the open space between three towns] between the chief Kai-Lundu and five hundred of his followers, chief Niagwa, chief Momo Baba-hu, and Kabba Seh. "Altogether there were about a thousand men present, most of them armed with flint-lock guns and swords." (p177)

Descriptions of Chiefs' Arrivals. (p177)

The meeting was called to form a type of alliance. "The occasion was one of vital importance to these people, much of whose country had been destroyed by constant wars, and who were even then living in perpetual dread of a Sofa invasion ... " (p178)

Before the Protectorate the county was ruled by chiefs. (p179)

Chief Niagwa attended the meeting not to save his country but to fine his brothers six slaves and one cow each. (p179)

"Niagwa, however, never took kindly to the idea of a Protectorate, and during the native rising in 1898 he took a prominent part ... " (p179)

The Government Road continued after Pendembu but "had not been properly graded." (p180)

Boundary limitations split certain countries. " ... it has so divided the Luawa country that one half, from the town of Gehun, is British, while the other half is Liberian." (p180)

War fences are prohibited by the Government. (p181)

Kanre-Lahun was the trade market center "for the surrounding countries such as Konno, Bandi, Bundi, Vassa, Gissi, and other tribes." (p182)

European goods are almost nonexistent in Kanre-Lahun; few are brought from Baiima but the main interest in Kanre-Lahun is salt. (p182)

XX. Back to the Coast by Swamp, Bush, and Forest (p183)

National Anthem in the Mendi Language. (p183)

Alldridge uses a palm-string hammock instead of a cloth one because it allows ventilation. (p183)

Best options in choosing hammock carriers. (p183)

"The Mendis are the most powerful tribe in the eastern part of the Protectorate, and ... before long their language will be universal in the Sherbro and other contiguous parts of Mendiland." (P184)

The Mendi and the Timinis tribes built the greater portion of the railway. (p184)

" ... before long, with the training that the Government school at Bo is giving them, the latent intelligence of this this great tribe [Mendi] will be developed, and we shall find in them qualities, administrative, commercial, and social ... " (p184)

A German military officer once told Alldridge on a German steamer, "We like the Mendis they make excellent native soldiers for us. We should be glad of many more. We treat them well; we pay them well; and they are so intelligent that they soon learn our drill, and we are able to promote them rapidly." (p184)

Formerly, " ... British coin would not pass in exchange for the domestic commodities I required, and when if my silver was received it was promptly melted down for ornaments; there was no local use for it as coin." (p186)

Stories of uselessness of money. (p186)

There is a shortage of agricultural labor in the Protectorate. (p188)

African farm-hands are better off than European farm-hands because they are "entitled to a certain amount of land within his chief's jurisdiction, which he can work for himself, and practically owns, although he cannot sell it." (p188)

With the introduction of the railway, natives found they could earn a regular wage that which "brought him out of his solitudes into what was to him an amazing new world; to the centre of which, Freetown, he speedily gravitated in such numbers that a Mendi Reservation there became necessary." (p188)

With the completion of the railway unemployment soared among Mendi men. (p189)

" ... too much land is lying fallow, while in Freetown the price of labour has considerably fallen. The native farmer is not a paid labourer, nor can he afford to pay labour." (p189)

"Country-rice is greatly preferred to imported grain as it is fare more nutritious." People cannot live without these staple commodities and the shortage of country-rice is causing great discontent in Freetown. (p189)

Native men are also leaving agriculture because of the limitations. A white missionary asked a farmer why he did not make a big farm and live upon it with his family. His answer: "...suppose I make a big farm so that I have rice enough to sell; if it is bigger than the farm of my chief I shall get palaver for that, which is certain to go against me, and I will be fined, perhaps in cattle, goats, or domestics, or the rice itself will be taken." (p190)

"The young men are really afraid to advance and to accumulate money which may exceed that of their chiefs or elders, simply for the reason that under some pretext or other it will be taken from them." (p191)

XXI. The Old chiefs and the New (p193)

"The old paramount chief was supreme in hi sown country, accountable to no one; the present paramount chief is responsible to the British Government ... he is still a great personage, through whom the Government works, and in the mysterious domain of fetish he is still absolute." (p193)

Because the tribes have no written language new laws are put in place orally by messengers. (pp193-194)

The Order of the Poro is a secret society for men which is known to a part of both good and evil. (p194)

Kaimahun is the highest level in the Order of the Poro. This position is "sacred to the chiefs, who are themselves sworn to secrecy in the innermost recess of the Poro bush." (p194)

Alldridge visited Kabba Seh, the Paramount chief of the Mando country, in the town of Gorn. The tramway extension was also being built through the town at the same time. (p194)

Kabba Seh is the last remaining chief that attended the meeting of 1892 in the town of Korbangai. (p194)

Alldridge traveled with Kabba Seh's son Albert by hammock to the town of Bunduka. The trail was described as "very beautiful ... through fine, shady glades." (p195)

The people of Bunduka were very cordial toward Alldridge. (p196)

Description of different types of devils. (p196)

Description of different types of devils. (p197)

Ways of dealing with crime. (p198)

The deceased are carried off in hammocks and are sometimes buried with "various articles of food and drink ... " (p199)

"Almost all Mendis acknowledge the existence of a future state in some form or other, or believe that when he leaves this world man becomes a spirit." (p199)

XXII. Byways in Mendiland (p203)

Because there is no Salic law women can become rulers. (p203)

Darkness comes at about 6:15 p.m. which is relatively early for European travelers. (p204)

Before the railway delivered kerosene, there only light in town at night was from the fire in the center. (p204)

Villages near the coast used raw palm-oil and country cotton to make wicks. (p205)

Alldridge paid sixpence for "several small square-faced gin- bottles" to carry kerosene. (p205)

Alldridge was shocked to see the amount of Mori-men prevalent beyond the influence of the railway. (p207)

Description of Mori-men and native's opinions of them. (p207)

Description of Mori-men and native's opinions of them. (p208)

XXIII. The Mendi Marriage Customs. (p212)

Wives are obtained in Mendiland through three ways: captured in war, by gift, or the most common way, betrothal. (p212)

Before the Protectorate, tribal wars and slave revolts were excessive. The Protectorate outlaws these types of wars. (p212)

Ways of Betrothal. (p213)

Ways of Betrothal. (p214)

Wine-money is paid to in return for the man's offering. This payment is usually more than the man's offering. There is no fixed value but the more wine-money that is paid "the greater is the hold upon the woman in case she might want to change her mind and break off her engagement." (p214)

If wine-money is not paid then by custom the marriage is not considered legal. (p215)

Marriage customs and rights. (p216)

If a dispute between a husband and wife goes in favor of the husband then the wife's family is fined a considerable amount. " ... they prefer to compound the damages by furnishing another wife from the family, but that wife must not be a sister." (p217)

Description of Saraka. (p217)

"Pottery-making is quite a native art, like the weaving of country-cloths, being frequently an hereditary accomplishment." (p218)

How pottery is made. (p218)

How pottery is made. (p219)

XXIV. The Bundu Order. The Secret Society for Women (p220)

This society is very secretive. " ... the innermost workings of which it seems quite impossible for those outside the order, either man or woman, to know anything about." (p220)

It is believed but has not been proven that initiations into the Bundu Order involve a type of circumcision. (p220)

" ... laws of the country will not allow a Bundu to be in session at the same time as a Poro in one chief's jurisdiction ... a Bundu must always give way to a Poro." (p220)

Observations of the Bundu Order. (p220)

Observations of the Bundu Order. (p221)

Description of clothing worn by the women of the Bundu Order> (p222)

Description of "pulling of the Bundu" ceremony. (p222)

During the ceremony Bundu devils wore "lace- up black boots or tan shoes ... These modern things do not harmonise with the bulky fibrous costume." (p224)

The sowehs (highest level in the Bundu) are given rum, bottles of gin, leaf-tobacco, country-cloths, and many other articles. (p224)

The Kendu medicine is an important part of the Bandu order. (p225)

Se is a gambling game mostly played by the upper Mendis. Jigge, Ke, and Warre are also games that are played by the Mendis. Description of Para men and the Para Kotu (medicine stone)> (p232)

Alldridge heard the stories of the Para men and the medicine stone from the paramount chief of Sa-Krim country, Francis Fawundu. (p235)

A sacrifice was made in Mapehl Lake every 50 years because the devil supposedly lived underneath the water. This lake is located near the town Mano Bonjehma. (p235)

Description of the sacrifices and ceremonies. (p235)

XXV. The Coast and its Waterways. (p237)

The Mabessi Lake is a big fishing ground that supplies the people of upper Mendiland with fish. (p237)

The Kittam and the Bum-Kittam waterways are trading centers all year round. (p238)

Alldridge explains why some rivers are not navigable. (p238)

Trading slows around the time when people give attention to clearing their land for the making of rice or cassada. This usually occurs from January to March. (p238)

The busiest trading time is during the wet season. This is because merchants can navigate almost any river. (p239)

Small trucks that run on narrow tracks carry goods from inland down the wharf where they dump the contents onto a ship. (p239)

The European assistant at the trading factories care little about the country or its inhabitants. They survey most of the work from the deck of departing ship. (p239)

The Shebar straits were used by the slave traders as it provided concealment. " ... these straits were unfortunately too well known, as they enabled the slave-ships ... to cross over the bar, and to lie concealed by the dense mangrove trees inside the Sherbro waters ... " (p240)

General Turner, who later became governor of Sierra Leone, set up a treaty with Sierra Leone chiefs in 1825 dealing with the slave trade. (p240)

Sierra Leone, the Sherbro, and the Gallinas became huge areas for the slave trade. "The Sherbro was practically given up to the trade in human beings ... " (p240)

Copy of a contract for the transaction of slaves. (p241)

Copy of a contract for the transaction of slaves. (p242)

The Sherbro was the principle exporter of palm-oil and palm- kernels until the railway was built from Freetown to Baiima. (p242)

In the early days of the Protectorate ships mostly departed from Liverpool carrying about 600 tons of cargo each. (p242)

The Sherbro was cut off by Freetown because of the amount of sickness that occurred as a result of European sailors. (p243)

The passage time has decreased from forty to sixty days to fourteen days. (p243)

Bonthe, located on the Sherbro island, is the seat for the government and the center for European firms and Syrian and Sierra Leonean traders. (p243)

Bonthe is built on a swamp and described as "overcrowded by both by houses and people, but being with York Island the only trading market, the people naturally flock there, the one idea being money ... " (p243)

The people of Bonthe are not industrious. Alldridge blames this fact on the amount of liquor available in Bonthe. (p243)

The railway does not extend into Lower Sherbro. (p246)

The bungalows built in the mountains of Freetown improves the health of the European officials. (p246)

Bendu was a major spot for natives of Sierra Leone to trade and cultivate small pieces of land until it was destroyed in 1898. (p247)

Sherbro is completely isolated except for the telegraph station which was built by the government in 1907. The wires for the telegraph station runs along the railway which is located miles away. (p247)

XXVI. Sherbro (fish). From Minnow to Tarpon. (p249)

The bunga is the most common type of fish. (p249)

Turtles and turtle eggs are caught on the beaches and in the waters of the Sherbro Island, the Turner's Peninsula, Sulima, and the Turtle Islands. (p250)

Hippopotamuses inhabit the upper reaches of the Bum-Kittam and the Lower-Kittam rivers. (p251)

Story of a hippo feeding an entire village. (p252)

Mangrove trees cover the banks of the rivers in the Sherbro. (p253)

Alldridge was told by his friend Major G. D'Arcy Anderson told him that in Konno country, where he was District Commissioner, there was a "Snake Society" ... (p254)

XXVII. The Sherbro Churches. (p258)

Sierra Leone is predominantly Christian. (p258)

The missions in Sierra Leone are credited for the establishment of education and religion. (p258)

The United Brethren in Christ started the first missions work in the Sherbro. (p258)

Story of the Spanish ship Amistad and the kidnapped Africans> (p258)

Story of the Spanish ship Amistad and the kidnapped Africans> (p259)

The chiefs of the Sherbro Island gained a title for 400 acres of land which was used to set-up a mission named "Good Hope." (p260)

The American Missionary Association took control of the Mendi Mission four years after the establishment of Good Hope. (p260)

The American Missionary Association did work at Kor-Mendi station and Good Hope station as well as establishing others at Mo-Tappin, on the Big Bum River, and another near Mano. (p260)

Mano became the site of a saw-mill and other industries which supplied building materials for Bonthe and Freetown. The missions taught natives how to work the mill and such. (p261)

"The Mission formed the beginning of American missionary work in what is now the Colony and Protectorate of Sierra Leone." (p261)

The American United Brethren in Christ sent out explorers in 1855 to survey land in order to set-up new mission stations. The first of these expansions was at Mokelli on the Jong River which was later moved to Shengeh. (p261)

An American Reverend Joseph Gomer was sent out in 1880 and became a great economical asset as the leader of the United Brethren in Christ Mission. (p261)

The Mendi Mission was set-up in 1875 at Rotifunk on the Bompe River. (p262)

The Mission buildings were destroyed in at Rotifunk during the uprising in 1898. (p262)

Reverend J.R. King, D.D. and his wife were away during the uprising and returned afterwards to bury there friends and loved ones. (p263)

A stone church was erected in 1904, costing œ1000, as a memorial for the martyrs: "The Martyrs' Memorial." (p263)

Dr. Zenora E. Griggs is the medical head of Hatfield-Archer Medical Dispensary (Also a memorial for two women doctors who were killed during the uprising). (p263)

Twenty-five mission stations are built and under control by the Mendi Mission. They also have 900 students attending their schools. (p265)

Reverend R. Cookson-Taylor became the head of the Good Hope station at Bonthe after Reverend J. R. King. (p265)

Weaver Memorial Church was dedicated in March 1905, costing over œ3000 (p266)

XXVIII. The Making of a Bai Sherbro and of a Sokong of Imperri. (p268)

XXIX. Tribal Wars that led to the Forming of the Protectorate. (p279)

Yawri Bay is described as " ... very treacherous expanse of water during the rains ... " (p279)

The government buoyed this channel because of the amount of boat accidents. (p279)

At Alldridge's first visit, the colony of Sierra Leone consisted only of Freetown, the Sherbro Island, and Turner's Peninsula. (p280)

Slave trading still existed inland after the slave trade ceased on the coast. (p280)

"To procure slaves, raids were constantly occurring, the country was never free from tribal warfare, and the people lived in a state of perpetual terror." (p281)

XXX. The Need of a Protectorate. (p290)

Eighteen years before Alldridge most recent tour, he succeeded in making a treaty for the government. (p291)

Greater powers lay beyond the Sofas. (p291)

"Slaves were money, current coin, or its equivalent..." (p292)

The three great powers in Africa were England, France, and Samodu. (p293)

Port Lokko is located outside the influence of the railway and is important because it bring the Timine trade on canoes to Freetown. (p293)

The Mohammedan chief of the Samory was losing supplies from Freetown so he closed down the roads into the interior. (p294)

This closed roads cost Freetown a great loss. Major Morton Festing, Political Officer at Sierra Leone was sent on a mission to clear the roads; he never returned. (p294)

G.H. Garrett, the traveling commissioner, found Festing's grave while traveling through Sinikoro. (p295)

Garrett was sent into the Hinterlands to find the true meaning behind the closed roads. (p295)

XXXI. From Mr. Garrett's Log-book. (p296)

April 5th, 1890 Small-pox is prevalent in the town of Konkoba. (p297)

Garrett traveled to the town of Musaia and was well received by the chief Dusu Suri and the rest of the tribe. They told him that " ... they were willing to place the whole country in my hands if I would save them." (p298)

Dusu Suri needed support against the Sofas. The French were offering support but most natives dislike the French. (p298)

Dusu Suri presented Garrett with "one bullock and twenty small blies of clean rice, while the Chief of Sinkunia presented one sheep, I making suitable return presents from my little store of articles provided by the Government for this purpose." (p299)

Momadu Wakka is the government interpreter traveling with Garrett. (p300)

The chief of Kalieri also sent three gold rings showing his appreciation to Garrett for the assurance of their survival under the British against the Sofas. (p302)

Garrett received kola nuts from Kalieri messengers. Kola nuts are a sign of friendship. (p304)

Garrett and Manga the Chief of Dantilia exchanged presents. (p304)

Garrett met with the Sofas who told them that the fighting was necessary. They did not want to fight, they only wanted to open the closed roads. (p305)

Garrett met with the chiefs of Bilali and "succeeded in exhorting a promise thathe would advance no further than Falaba until his return." (pp310-311)

XXXII. Mr. Garrett's Log continued: Across the Niger (p312)

"The Niger is the boundary between the Sulima country and Woolaleh Dougou in Sangara." (p312)

Garrett traded four yards of gray cloth for a large bowl of honey with the leader of Sirieria. (p315)

XXXIII. Back to Port Lokko. (p328)

Description of Farana, burial ground, and British post> (p328)

A lot of natives died from small pox. (p328)

On June 11th, Alldridge stopped at Kaliere where G.H. Garrett held a meeting with Bilali, Al Hassan, and others to create a treaty. (p329)

XXXIV. The Oil-Palm. (p334)

The oil palm is the supreme plant of the coast and with little outside effort provides natives with food and drink. (p334)

Description of Oil-palm and their fruits. (p335)

Laws are put upon the oil-palms to decrease the amount of wasteful cutting. (p336)

With all the laws, there still is a shortage of palm-oil. (p337)

The palm-oil produces two kinds of oil that is wanted by Europe: palm-oil and palm kernel-oil. (p337)

How palm-oil is cultivated. (p338)

How palm-oil is cultivated. (p339)

How palm-oil is cultivated. (p340)

Different Types of palm. (p341)

Rice is oldest known food to the natives. (p342)

A lot of the rice grown in Sierra Leone is exported. (p342)

Europeans, even though it is less nutritious, prefer the American white rice instead. (p342)

The main exports of Africa are rice, tobacco, and indigo. (p343)

XXXV. The Kola Tree. (p349)

The Kola Tree is a favored fruit throughout Sierra Leone. (p349)

" ... the majority of Europeans do not relish them [kola nut], as the flavour reminds them so much of the too familiar quinine." (p349)

Description of the use of Sarakas. (p350)

Description of the use of Sarakas. (p351)

The kola is almost totally for native use for " ... under 60 cwt. Came to the United Kingdom and only 16 cwt. Went to Germany during the year of 1907." (p351)

"The value of the kolas exported from Sierra Leone in 1907 was œ113,674." (p351)

In the Sherbro the kola is known as "Tchorkor." (p351)

Tongone or country tobacco can be seen growing all over the coast. The railway allowed for the transportation of tobacco to villages away from the coast. (p352)

The arrival of American tobacco took away from the native market because, at 2 schillings per pound, it was preferred over the country tobacco. (p353)

The railway is destroying the market of "Old-style country cloths ... because imported coloured fabrics at ridiculously cheap prices can be bought all over the country ... " (p353)

Imported colored ready for the loom is destroying the native cotton industry. (pp353-354)

At his first sight of the railway station in 1907 at Baiima, Alldridge notes on the amount of camwood stacked for transportation to Freetown. (p354)

Alldridge again visited the stations in 1908 and saw that the camwood industry "had become extinct." (p355)

Fibres are being used instead of camwood. Alldridge doesn't believe that this industry will take off until it is privatized. (p355)

XXXVI. Conclusion. (p357)

Sierra Leone would not have become a progressive colony had not been for their pacification by the government. (p357)

The commercial exports of Sierra Leone should be expanded. (p357)

There needs to be an increased circulation of money. (p359)

Better ways of farming palm-oil needs and ways to deal with the wasted palm-oil need to be established. (p359)

The cultivation of sugar-cane and coffee would bring more wealth to Sierra Leone. (p360)

The amount of metals found in Sierra Leone needs to be explored. (p361)

"In spite, however, of all drawbacks, including the restricted area of the Colony and Protectorate, the volume of exports and imports has increased by leaps and bounds . . . " (p361)

Index. (p363)


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