anfom document

Lt. Gouverneur du Colonie du Soudan Français, Rapport Politique Annuel, Année 1933 (May 22, 1933)
in ANFOM Affaires Politiques Carton 2802

Notes © 1999 by Jim Jones, Ph.D.

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(p4) Tableau de la Population Indigène par Races: This table shows the population of several cercles in the French Soudan broken down by race, according to a classification system devised by the French administrator.

Ethnic group Bafoulabé Bamako Gao Kayes Timbuktu Ségou French Soudan
Bambara - 176,817 - 18,800 - 131,788 767,755
Peuhl - 2,136 - 987 - 26,442 541,702
Mossi - - - - - - 330,813
Marka 8,146 19,866 - 34,527 - 9,723 268,979
Habé - - - - - - 173,155
Songhai - - 38,897 - 41,635 - 164,408
Malinké 40,790 48,847 - 15,000 - - 163,593
Minianka - - - - - - 157,880
Maures - - - 19,000 14,346 - 144,773
Senoufo - - - - - - 119,086
Touareg - - 28,701 - 16,802 - 106,798
Samo - - - - - 105,342
Foula-Bambara - - - - - - 80,784
Bozo - - - - - - 35,066
Bobo - - - - - - 53,481
Kassonké 23,473 - - 22,529 - - 46,002
Dioula - - - - - - 33,990
Tukolors - - - 17,000 - - 17,000
Kagoro - 13,633 - - - - 17,633
Somono - 1,430 - 759 - 11,271 13,460
Marka-Bambara - - - - - - 12,176
Diallonké - - - - - - 7,940
Peuhl-Berber - - - - - - 4,160
Ouolofs - 100 - 367 - - 2,567
Ouassoulounké 2,368 - - - - - 2,368
Diawara - - - - - - 2,143
Diawambé 1,969 - - - - - 1,969
Diakanké 795 - - - - - 1,795
Dogon - - - - - - 1,450
Guiranké - - - - - - 1,398
Foreign Africans - - - - - - 5
Other - 6,306 - - - 1,835 3,748
Total 77,541 269,135 67,598 128,969 73,386 181,059 3,423,419

This table is drawn from the same table as the previous table. It shows the cercles that were inventoried, and the total population of each cercle:

Cercle Population
Bafoulabé 77,541
Bamako 269,135
Bandigara 273,415
Baninko 88,857
Bougouni 187,835
Gao 67,598
Gourma-Rharous 37,276
Issa Ber 117,960
Kayes 128,969
Kita 69,250
Koutiala 182,759
Macina 103,060
Mopti 146,688
Nara 113,247
Nema 61,464
Nioro 171,100
Ouahigouya 418,270
San 151,210
Satadougou 33,640
Ségou 181,059
Sikasso 206,087
Tougan 148,646
Tombouctou 73,386
Goundam 114,977
Total 3,423,419

(p8) This is a list of decrees that created the colony of French Soudan as it existed in 1933:

As of December 31, 1933, French Soudan has 24 cercles of which 10 were divided into subdivisions.

(p14) Le régime de l'indigénat de la Colonie du Soudan Français résultant des dispositions du décret du 15 Novembre 1924 et des actes subséquents, a normalement été appliqué au cours de l'année 1933 (Forced labor, as defined by the decree of November 15, 1924 and subsequent acts, was employed in French Soudan during the course of 1933).

(pp20-21) This table shows the number of days of forced labor employed in the French Soudan, broken down by cercle, from 1931-1933.

Cercle 1931 1932 1933
Bafoulabé 152,748 152,748 216,837
Bamako 302,643 429,174 464,139
Bandigara 488,052 531,261 534,429
Baninko 0 0 195,849
Bougouni 446,184 434,487 410,481
Gao 78,053 77,715 74,691
Goundam 237,726 192,333 207,954
Gourma-Rharous 24,867 24,867 24,867
Issa-Ber 263,583 258,885 242,703
Kayes 0 247,599 247,599
Kita 103,968 117,333 111,600
Koutiala 616,698 616,698 658,089
Macina 240,411 227,670 227,070
Mopti 296,388 296,388 307,863
Nara 168,696 171,477 169,191
Nema 125,370 103,734 60,390
Nioro 310,824 309,333 305,784
Ouahigouya 0 0 632,128
San 237,528 239,788 334,536
Satadougou 61,380 69,696 69,696
Segou 438,813 427,878 327,618
Sikasso 318,150 318,150 300,411
Tombouctou 91,550 97,668 93,816
Tougan 0 0 304,095
Total 5,003,632 5,345,802 6,521,836

The biggest increase in the use of forced labor took place in San and Koutiala, due to the fact that they each recently obtained additional territory from Haute Volta.

(p22) This table shows the amount of wages paid to forced laborers and the number of days that they were expected to work in various cercles:

Cercle Wage (francs) Number of days
Bamako 3.50 9
Bafoulabé 3.00 9
Bamako (canton de Dinandougou) 3.00 9
Baninko (certain cantons) 3.00 9
Kayes 3.50 9
Kita 3.00 9
Koutiala (cantons transferred
from Haute Volta)
3.00 8
Macina 3.00 9
Mopti 3.00 9
Nioro 3.00 9
San 3.00 8
Satadougou 3.00 9
Ségou 3.00 9
Tombouctou 3.00 9
Tougan 3.00 8
Ouahigouya (canton d'Aribinda) 1.75 7
Ouahigouya 2.00 7
Elsewhere 2.50 9

(p23) Owners of trucks, automobiles and trailers were also subject to the requisition of their vehicles for four days. They were compensated at a rate of 5 to 15 francs per day.

(p31) Armes et munitions: This table shows the distribution of firearms in the colony of French Soudan by race, type and cercle:

Cercle Europeans Africans Trade arms
Population Pistols Rifles Muskets Population Pistols Rifles Muskets Total Seized Note
Bamako 977 16 29 203 269,135 0 0 109 9,863 208 1 rifle
Gao 140 2 15 47 67,598 0 1 23 52 12 -
Kayes 310 5 3 50 128,969 0 0 56 2,152 24 1 pistol & 1 rifle
Mopti 170 0 3 28 146,688 0 1 28 1,273 0 -
Ségou 255 11 16 65 181,059 0 0 33 2,706 0 -
Timbuktu 152 7 5 28 73,386 0 1 11 7 0 -
Total 2,616 60 105 510 3,423,419 1 4 674 45,567 714 -

(p31) In general, Africans did not own rifled weapons, but a few were presented by French authorities as gifts of honor. For example, in the Gercle de Gao, "Carabine d'honneur remise à Mohamed Ahmed, Chef des Cheriffen par le Minstre des Colonies."

(p32) Africans make their own gunpowder for trade weapons, as well as flints.

(p39) Conventions écrits entre indigènes: This table shows the number of legal contracts between Africans that were filed in 1933:

Cercle Bamako Gao Kayes Mopti Ségou Tombouctou total
Number of contracts 47 2 0 2 6 0 176
Value of contracts 9,141.50 500 0 1000 0 0 34,099.25

(p40) Types of contracts: There is a long list that mentions, among many other things, a contract at Ségou for "Engins à employer pour la pèche" and one at Gao for "mandat (représentation en justice de Paix)"

(p44) This is a list of the laws that created "Conseils de Notables" (governing bodies composed of African leaders) in the following cercles:

(pp47-48) There is a list of the items handled by the Conseils des Notables. The main items are assigning the days of forced labor and calculating personal income taxes. Other business concerns agricultural production.

(p66) The military post at Tessalit (near the Algerian border in the Sahara Desert) was transferred temporarily to the military command at Kidal.

(p69) There were no problems associated with Islam. There were two major Islamic sects in the colony, Kadria (alternate spelling= Qadiriyya) and Tidjania à douze grains.

(pp72-73) A marabout named Seydou Nourou Tall, a descendant of El Hadj Omar (Umar Tall), was a prominent figure in the colony. He came from Guinea to Bamako in May 1933 and was received by a huge crowd at the mosque. After a tour through Ségou, San, Mopti, Ouahigouya and Tougan, he returned to Bamako on November 20 and went on to Dakar after a stop in Kita. The report mentions his loyalty to France and the positive effect of his trip through the Soudan.

(p98) The report describes the effects of the depression on local business in Kayes - shops closed, no customers in restaurants, many unemployed masons and construction workers, etc.

(p99) There was a yellow fever epidemic in Kayes in 1932.

(p104) On December 26, 1933, the colony observed the 50th anniversary of the French presence in the Soudan. A statue of Colonel Borgnis-Desbordes, the founder of the French fort in Bamako, was erected for the ceremony.

(p106) On December 27, 1933, a statue of Colonel Archinard was erected in Ségou for 50th anniversary of the French presence in the Soudan.

(p124) There was fighting in the Sahara region in 1932 between Kountas from Bourem and Cheriffen from Gao.