Worksheet on Expanded Tonality
Gap-fill exercise
Papillons, Op. 2 by Robert Schumann consists of an introduction and one phrase (mm. 1-16) followed by three additional phrases, that together create a small form:
Introduction :||: A :||: B A' :||
The introduction is in C# minor but the piece is in Db major. This tonal relationship is best described as an enharmonic of . Although the two are spelled differently, their remains the same.

Your example shows the second half of the piece, from the B section through the return of . Using Roman Numerals, the first chord in B would be analyzed as in . The 7th and the 7th chords are used to the harmonies and , and to to the key of in mm. 22-23. The second chord and third chords in m. 23 would be analyzed as a and respectively, leading to a on .

The harmonic interest in this passage comes from Schumann's abrupt shift not to the expected of , but to the of Db major. The two chords in m. 24 are thus related by , with the first chord- if it is analyzed in Db major-appearing as an triad in that key.

Our analysis of Papillons reveals three important characteristics of 19th-century tonality:

1. and harmony continue to play a large role in establishing tonal forms;
2. by and chords is used not only for , but is found as a common feature of thematic statements; and
3. Harmonies that relate by are used at a climactic point in the composition.